DToleratedToleratedToleratedn/aMediumMediumLowLowLowAmino Acid Change Nucleotide Change 1 ” Mutation TypeNonsensen/aLowLow Missense c.

DToleratedToleratedToleratedn/aMediumMediumLowLowLowAmino Acid Change Nucleotide Change 1 ” Mutation TypeNonsensen/aLowLow Missense c.G1448A Stable Serous p.R483QMissenseMissenseMissenseMissensep.R854WMissenseMissensep.D359Np.D679Nc.G1075Ap.R786Cc.G2035Ac.G1012Tc.C2356Tc.C2560Tc.G2074Tc.C1595Tp.D692Yp.E338Xp.S532LMSI StatusUnstableUnstableUnstableStableStableStableEndometrioidEndometrioidClear cellClear cellStableSerousSerousTSerousSerousStablec.G391Ap.D131N{MissenseMediumAffects functionToleratedPossibly damagingPolyphen-2 PredictionBenignn/aCohesion Gene Mutations in GSK -3203591 endometrial CancerFigure 1. Localization of somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A in primary endometrial tumors, relative to important functional domains of the encoded proteins. Individual somatic mutations are indicated by squares (nonsense mutations) or diamonds (missense mutations). Domain positions are derived from [65], [66], [61], [59], [67]. GAR: Glycine-Arginine-Rich motif; RBD:RAD50 Binding Domain; RFC box: Replication Factor C box. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gFigure 2. Oncoprint displaying nonsynonymous somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, MRE11A, and ATAD5 in eight primary endometrial cancers. Individual tumors (T) are indicated by vertical gray bars. Tumors consist of NEECs (T3, T51, T62, T68, T77, T79, T113) and an EEC (T88). Genes (left) and nonsynonymous somatic mutations (orange boxes) are indicated. ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A were analyzed in this study; *ATAD5 mutations, MSH6 mutations, and microsatellite instability (MSI) have previously been described elsewhere [44], [52]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gReverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)Total RNA was extracted from 5 endometrioid and 2 serous endometrial cancer cell lines using Trizol Reagent (Ambion). A commercially available human total RNA control mix (Applied 374913-63-0 site MedChemExpress [DTrp6]-LH-RH Biosystems) was used as a positive control. cDNA synthesis was performed on 1mg of total RNA with the high-capacity cDNA archive kit using random hexamers (Applied Biosystems). cDNAs (0.2ml) were amplified by PCR using the primer pairs provided in Table S1. Amplification consisted of 40 cycles using the following parameters: 94uC for 30 s, 58uC for 30 s and 72uC for 30 s, with a final P7C3 price extension step at 72uC for 10 min. PCR products were separated on a 1 agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide in 0.56 TAE buffer and visualized under ultraviolet illumination.Clinical specimensAnonymized, primary endometrial tumor tissues (45 serous, 20 clear cell, and 42 endometrioid) and matched histologically normal tissues were obtained from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, or from the Biosample Repository at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia PA. Six cases of matched tumor and normal DNAs were procured from Oncomatrix. All tumor tissues were collected before treatment. An hematoxylin and eosin (H E) stained section of each tumor specimen was reviewed by a pathologist to verify histology and to delineate regions of tissue with high ( 70 ) tumor cell content.Nucleic acid isolation and identity testingGenomic DNA was isolated from macrodissected tissue using the Puregene kit (Qiagen). Paired, tumor-normal DNAs were genotyped using the Coriell Identity Mapping kit (Coriell) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Genotyping fragments were size separated on an ABI-3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems) and alleles were scored using GeneMapper (Applied Biosystems).Cell lines and Western blot analysisSerous endometrial cancer cel.DToleratedToleratedToleratedn/aMediumMediumLowLowLowAmino Acid Change Nucleotide Change 1 ” Mutation TypeNonsensen/aLowLow Missense c.G1448A Stable Serous p.R483QMissenseMissenseMissenseMissensep.R854WMissenseMissensep.D359Np.D679Nc.G1075Ap.R786Cc.G2035Ac.G1012Tc.C2356Tc.C2560Tc.G2074Tc.C1595Tp.D692Yp.E338Xp.S532LMSI StatusUnstableUnstableUnstableStableStableStableEndometrioidEndometrioidClear cellClear cellStableSerousSerousTSerousSerousStablec.G391Ap.D131N{MissenseMediumAffects functionToleratedPossibly damagingPolyphen-2 PredictionBenignn/aCohesion Gene Mutations in Endometrial CancerFigure 1. Localization of somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A in primary endometrial tumors, relative to important functional domains of the encoded proteins. Individual somatic mutations are indicated by squares (nonsense mutations) or diamonds (missense mutations). Domain positions are derived from [65], [66], [61], [59], [67]. GAR: Glycine-Arginine-Rich motif; RBD:RAD50 Binding Domain; RFC box: Replication Factor C box. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gFigure 2. Oncoprint displaying nonsynonymous somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, MRE11A, and ATAD5 in eight primary endometrial cancers. Individual tumors (T) are indicated by vertical gray bars. Tumors consist of NEECs (T3, T51, T62, T68, T77, T79, T113) and an EEC (T88). Genes (left) and nonsynonymous somatic mutations (orange boxes) are indicated. ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A were analyzed in this study; *ATAD5 mutations, MSH6 mutations, and microsatellite instability (MSI) have previously been described elsewhere [44], [52]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gReverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)Total RNA was extracted from 5 endometrioid and 2 serous endometrial cancer cell lines using Trizol Reagent (Ambion). A commercially available human total RNA control mix (Applied Biosystems) was used as a positive control. cDNA synthesis was performed on 1mg of total RNA with the high-capacity cDNA archive kit using random hexamers (Applied Biosystems). cDNAs (0.2ml) were amplified by PCR using the primer pairs provided in Table S1. Amplification consisted of 40 cycles using the following parameters: 94uC for 30 s, 58uC for 30 s and 72uC for 30 s, with a final extension step at 72uC for 10 min. PCR products were separated on a 1 agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide in 0.56 TAE buffer and visualized under ultraviolet illumination.Clinical specimensAnonymized, primary endometrial tumor tissues (45 serous, 20 clear cell, and 42 endometrioid) and matched histologically normal tissues were obtained from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, or from the Biosample Repository at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia PA. Six cases of matched tumor and normal DNAs were procured from Oncomatrix. All tumor tissues were collected before treatment. An hematoxylin and eosin (H E) stained section of each tumor specimen was reviewed by a pathologist to verify histology and to delineate regions of tissue with high ( 70 ) tumor cell content.Nucleic acid isolation and identity testingGenomic DNA was isolated from macrodissected tissue using the Puregene kit (Qiagen). Paired, tumor-normal DNAs were genotyped using the Coriell Identity Mapping kit (Coriell) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Genotyping fragments were size separated on an ABI-3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems) and alleles were scored using GeneMapper (Applied Biosystems).Cell lines and Western blot analysisSerous endometrial cancer cel.DToleratedToleratedToleratedn/aMediumMediumLowLowLowAmino Acid Change Nucleotide Change 1 ” Mutation TypeNonsensen/aLowLow Missense c.G1448A Stable Serous p.R483QMissenseMissenseMissenseMissensep.R854WMissenseMissensep.D359Np.D679Nc.G1075Ap.R786Cc.G2035Ac.G1012Tc.C2356Tc.C2560Tc.G2074Tc.C1595Tp.D692Yp.E338Xp.S532LMSI StatusUnstableUnstableUnstableStableStableStableEndometrioidEndometrioidClear cellClear cellStableSerousSerousTSerousSerousStablec.G391Ap.D131N{MissenseMediumAffects functionToleratedPossibly damagingPolyphen-2 PredictionBenignn/aCohesion Gene Mutations in Endometrial CancerFigure 1. Localization of somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A in primary endometrial tumors, relative to important functional domains of the encoded proteins. Individual somatic mutations are indicated by squares (nonsense mutations) or diamonds (missense mutations). Domain positions are derived from [65], [66], [61], [59], [67]. GAR: Glycine-Arginine-Rich motif; RBD:RAD50 Binding Domain; RFC box: Replication Factor C box. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gFigure 2. Oncoprint displaying nonsynonymous somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, MRE11A, and ATAD5 in eight primary endometrial cancers. Individual tumors (T) are indicated by vertical gray bars. Tumors consist of NEECs (T3, T51, T62, T68, T77, T79, T113) and an EEC (T88). Genes (left) and nonsynonymous somatic mutations (orange boxes) are indicated. ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A were analyzed in this study; *ATAD5 mutations, MSH6 mutations, and microsatellite instability (MSI) have previously been described elsewhere [44], [52]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gReverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)Total RNA was extracted from 5 endometrioid and 2 serous endometrial cancer cell lines using Trizol Reagent (Ambion). A commercially available human total RNA control mix (Applied Biosystems) was used as a positive control. cDNA synthesis was performed on 1mg of total RNA with the high-capacity cDNA archive kit using random hexamers (Applied Biosystems). cDNAs (0.2ml) were amplified by PCR using the primer pairs provided in Table S1. Amplification consisted of 40 cycles using the following parameters: 94uC for 30 s, 58uC for 30 s and 72uC for 30 s, with a final extension step at 72uC for 10 min. PCR products were separated on a 1 agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide in 0.56 TAE buffer and visualized under ultraviolet illumination.Clinical specimensAnonymized, primary endometrial tumor tissues (45 serous, 20 clear cell, and 42 endometrioid) and matched histologically normal tissues were obtained from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, or from the Biosample Repository at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia PA. Six cases of matched tumor and normal DNAs were procured from Oncomatrix. All tumor tissues were collected before treatment. An hematoxylin and eosin (H E) stained section of each tumor specimen was reviewed by a pathologist to verify histology and to delineate regions of tissue with high ( 70 ) tumor cell content.Nucleic acid isolation and identity testingGenomic DNA was isolated from macrodissected tissue using the Puregene kit (Qiagen). Paired, tumor-normal DNAs were genotyped using the Coriell Identity Mapping kit (Coriell) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Genotyping fragments were size separated on an ABI-3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems) and alleles were scored using GeneMapper (Applied Biosystems).Cell lines and Western blot analysisSerous endometrial cancer cel.DToleratedToleratedToleratedn/aMediumMediumLowLowLowAmino Acid Change Nucleotide Change 1 ” Mutation TypeNonsensen/aLowLow Missense c.G1448A Stable Serous p.R483QMissenseMissenseMissenseMissensep.R854WMissenseMissensep.D359Np.D679Nc.G1075Ap.R786Cc.G2035Ac.G1012Tc.C2356Tc.C2560Tc.G2074Tc.C1595Tp.D692Yp.E338Xp.S532LMSI StatusUnstableUnstableUnstableStableStableStableEndometrioidEndometrioidClear cellClear cellStableSerousSerousTSerousSerousStablec.G391Ap.D131N{MissenseMediumAffects functionToleratedPossibly damagingPolyphen-2 PredictionBenignn/aCohesion Gene Mutations in Endometrial CancerFigure 1. Localization of somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A in primary endometrial tumors, relative to important functional domains of the encoded proteins. Individual somatic mutations are indicated by squares (nonsense mutations) or diamonds (missense mutations). Domain positions are derived from [65], [66], [61], [59], [67]. GAR: Glycine-Arginine-Rich motif; RBD:RAD50 Binding Domain; RFC box: Replication Factor C box. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gFigure 2. Oncoprint displaying nonsynonymous somatic mutations in ESCO1, CHTF18, MRE11A, and ATAD5 in eight primary endometrial cancers. Individual tumors (T) are indicated by vertical gray bars. Tumors consist of NEECs (T3, T51, T62, T68, T77, T79, T113) and an EEC (T88). Genes (left) and nonsynonymous somatic mutations (orange boxes) are indicated. ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A were analyzed in this study; *ATAD5 mutations, MSH6 mutations, and microsatellite instability (MSI) have previously been described elsewhere [44], [52]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063313.gReverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)Total RNA was extracted from 5 endometrioid and 2 serous endometrial cancer cell lines using Trizol Reagent (Ambion). A commercially available human total RNA control mix (Applied Biosystems) was used as a positive control. cDNA synthesis was performed on 1mg of total RNA with the high-capacity cDNA archive kit using random hexamers (Applied Biosystems). cDNAs (0.2ml) were amplified by PCR using the primer pairs provided in Table S1. Amplification consisted of 40 cycles using the following parameters: 94uC for 30 s, 58uC for 30 s and 72uC for 30 s, with a final extension step at 72uC for 10 min. PCR products were separated on a 1 agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide in 0.56 TAE buffer and visualized under ultraviolet illumination.Clinical specimensAnonymized, primary endometrial tumor tissues (45 serous, 20 clear cell, and 42 endometrioid) and matched histologically normal tissues were obtained from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, or from the Biosample Repository at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia PA. Six cases of matched tumor and normal DNAs were procured from Oncomatrix. All tumor tissues were collected before treatment. An hematoxylin and eosin (H E) stained section of each tumor specimen was reviewed by a pathologist to verify histology and to delineate regions of tissue with high ( 70 ) tumor cell content.Nucleic acid isolation and identity testingGenomic DNA was isolated from macrodissected tissue using the Puregene kit (Qiagen). Paired, tumor-normal DNAs were genotyped using the Coriell Identity Mapping kit (Coriell) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Genotyping fragments were size separated on an ABI-3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems) and alleles were scored using GeneMapper (Applied Biosystems).Cell lines and Western blot analysisSerous endometrial cancer cel.

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