On [16,17]. Mitochondria in hESCs appear punctate, are localised to the periphery

On [16,17]. Mitochondria in hESCs appear punctate, are localised to the periphery of the nucleus (perinuclear) and have a AZ-876 cost restricted oxidative capacity [15,18,19]. Upon early differentiation, mitochondria undergo extensive distribution and branching throughout the cell [15,18,20] with aTracking Mitochondria during hESC Differentiationswitch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation [15,18,21]. This phenotype of mitochondrial localisation applies to multiple stem cell categories including adult, embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells [5,13,15]. This redistribution of mitochondria in hESCs from a peri-nuclear localisation to a branched network precedes down regulation of typical hESC markers such as Oct-4 [20]. It has been suggested that the characteristics of hESC mitochondria and metabolism such as perinuclear localisation, low ATP content and a high MedChemExpress GNF-7 metabolic rate could be used as a marker for “stemness” [3]. Indeed, there is increasing evidence 22948146 that mitochondria and their associated patterns of metabolism and localisation are in fact inexorably linked to pluripotency maintenance [17] and that undifferentiated hESCs can suppress mitochondrial activity [13,21]. Inhibition of mitochondrial function, or more specifically promoting glycolysis, enhances or maintains pluripotency with or without bFGF, respectively, and prevents early differentiation [20,22]. In addition, recent reports on human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSC) show that during reprogramming, the properties of mitochondria and metabolism also revert to those of a more hESC-like phenotype. This included altered localisation of mitochondria, mitochondrially associated gene expression level, mitochondrial DNA content, ATP levels, lactate levels and oxidative damage [13,16,21]. While evidence of the important role mitochondria and glycolysis play in maintaining hESC pluripotency is emerging, there is currently little known about the role mitochondria play in hESC differentiation. It is known that mitochondria levels vary in different cell types [23,24] and similarly their role in differentiation has been implicated in multiple human lineages including mesenchymal stem cells [25,26], cardiac mesangioblasts [27] and embryonic stem cells [20]. Based on recent evidence, which indicates that hESC pluripotency status can be influenced by shifts in oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, we examined the molecular changes in mitochondrially associated genes in response to mitochondrial biogenesis agents. Furthermore, we show that actively promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation improves differentiation of hESC towards a primitivestreak like mesendoderm population. Finally, we developed a hESC line in which GFP fluorescently tags mitochondria from initial biogenesis to maturity, paving the way for future detailed study of mitochondrial changes as hESCs differentiate towards specific mature cell types. Collectively, our studies reaffirm the pivotal role played by mitochondria in early lineage commitment and provide new tools for investigation of this critical organelle during hESC differentiation.National Health and Medical Research Council (Licence No. 309709).Tissue CultureAll mammalian tissue culture reagents described here were from Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA, USA) unless otherwise stated. The MIXL1 reporter line has been described [28]. All lines were provided by Stem Core Queensland (Australian Stem Cell Centre) and routinely maintained.On [16,17]. Mitochondria in hESCs appear punctate, are localised to the periphery of the nucleus (perinuclear) and have a restricted oxidative capacity [15,18,19]. Upon early differentiation, mitochondria undergo extensive distribution and branching throughout the cell [15,18,20] with aTracking Mitochondria during hESC Differentiationswitch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation [15,18,21]. This phenotype of mitochondrial localisation applies to multiple stem cell categories including adult, embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells [5,13,15]. This redistribution of mitochondria in hESCs from a peri-nuclear localisation to a branched network precedes down regulation of typical hESC markers such as Oct-4 [20]. It has been suggested that the characteristics of hESC mitochondria and metabolism such as perinuclear localisation, low ATP content and a high metabolic rate could be used as a marker for “stemness” [3]. Indeed, there is increasing evidence 22948146 that mitochondria and their associated patterns of metabolism and localisation are in fact inexorably linked to pluripotency maintenance [17] and that undifferentiated hESCs can suppress mitochondrial activity [13,21]. Inhibition of mitochondrial function, or more specifically promoting glycolysis, enhances or maintains pluripotency with or without bFGF, respectively, and prevents early differentiation [20,22]. In addition, recent reports on human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSC) show that during reprogramming, the properties of mitochondria and metabolism also revert to those of a more hESC-like phenotype. This included altered localisation of mitochondria, mitochondrially associated gene expression level, mitochondrial DNA content, ATP levels, lactate levels and oxidative damage [13,16,21]. While evidence of the important role mitochondria and glycolysis play in maintaining hESC pluripotency is emerging, there is currently little known about the role mitochondria play in hESC differentiation. It is known that mitochondria levels vary in different cell types [23,24] and similarly their role in differentiation has been implicated in multiple human lineages including mesenchymal stem cells [25,26], cardiac mesangioblasts [27] and embryonic stem cells [20]. Based on recent evidence, which indicates that hESC pluripotency status can be influenced by shifts in oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, we examined the molecular changes in mitochondrially associated genes in response to mitochondrial biogenesis agents. Furthermore, we show that actively promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation improves differentiation of hESC towards a primitivestreak like mesendoderm population. Finally, we developed a hESC line in which GFP fluorescently tags mitochondria from initial biogenesis to maturity, paving the way for future detailed study of mitochondrial changes as hESCs differentiate towards specific mature cell types. Collectively, our studies reaffirm the pivotal role played by mitochondria in early lineage commitment and provide new tools for investigation of this critical organelle during hESC differentiation.National Health and Medical Research Council (Licence No. 309709).Tissue CultureAll mammalian tissue culture reagents described here were from Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA, USA) unless otherwise stated. The MIXL1 reporter line has been described [28]. All lines were provided by Stem Core Queensland (Australian Stem Cell Centre) and routinely maintained.

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