Yed at various time points (8 h, 16 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3?4 d

Yed at various time points (8 h, 16 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3?4 d after seeding). The cellscaffold constructs were removed from their medium, rinsed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and placed in a 96-well culture plate. Cell viability was determined as reported [19]. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8, 20 mL/well, Dojindo Chemical Institute, Kumamoto, Japan) was added to each well, followed by further culture for 3 h (5 CO 2, 37uC, 100 relative humidity). Then, the constructs were removed, and the optical density of each well at 450 nm was measured with an ELISA reader (reference wavelength: 655 nm), with cell-free DMB scaffolds as the controls.Construction of implants and GroupingFour kinds of bone substitutes were constructed based on different approach of seeding and culture (Table 1). MedChemExpress Fruquintinib Hydrodynamic seeding and hydrodynamic culture (group A): Fifty DBM scaffolds and 5.06107 MSCs were added into the highaspect ratio vessel of a rotary cell culture system (Synthecon RCCS-1, Houston, TX, USA). The vessel was filled with 50 ml of DME/F12 culture medium (Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA) and degassed. The rotation speed was adjusted daily (18?4 rpm) to ensure that the rotating trajectories of the scaffolds would not collide with the vessel wall or converge to the center. The rotary culture system was incubated in an atmosphere of 5 CO2 and 100 relative humidity at 37uC, with daily adjustment of rotation speed and a change of medium every 48 h. Hydrogel-assisted seeding and hydrodynamic culture (group B): The fibrin glue (25 mg/ml, Tissucol, Baxter, Austria) wasALP activityThe ALP activities were measured at various time points (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 d) after seeding. The cell-scaffold constructs were rinsed twice with PBS and then lysed with 0.2 Triton X100 (Sigma, USA). The lysate was centrifuged at 600 g for 5 min and the supernatant was collected and incubated for 15 min (5 CO2, 37uC, 100 relative humidity). The absorbance at 405 nm was measured on a microplate reader and converted into the ALP activity against a standard curve, which was established based on the reaction of 10 ml of a MedChemExpress PS 1145 p-nitrophenyl solution (Wako) andEffects of Initial Cell and Hydrodynamic CultureTable 1. Summary of in vitro preparation of cell-scaffold constructs.Group A B C DSeeding method Hydrodynamic Hydrogel-assisted Static Hydrogel-assistedCulture condition Hydrodynamic Hydrodynamic Static StaticCell suspension concentration per scaffold 1.06106 cells/ml 2.0610 cells/ml 2.06107 15755315 cells/ml 2.0610 cells/ml7Cell suspension volume per scaffold 1.00 ml 0.05 ml 0.05 ml 0.05 mlCell number per scaffold 1.06106 1.Seeding efficiency ( ) 32.1060.72# 82.1461.09 25.2461.56* 81.5361.1.06106 1.*: seeding efficiency in group C was lower than that in other groups (p,0.05); # : seeding efficiency in group A was lower than that in group B and D (p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053697.t200 ml of substrate buffer for 30 min. ALP activities were expressed as U values.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)All specimens per group were was treated by a series of procedures for SEM observation after 14-day culture, including incubating in 3 (w/v) glutaraldehyde solution for 48 h at 4uC, washing over-night with 0.1 M PBS solution, decalcifying with 0.5 mol/L EDTA for 7 days, washing over-night with 0.1 M PBS solution, incubating in 2.5 glutaraldehyde solution for 48 h at 4uC, and post-fixing and staining with 1 osmium tetroxide for 2 h at 4uC, dehydrating in a graded series of ethanol, coa.Yed at various time points (8 h, 16 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3?4 d after seeding). The cellscaffold constructs were removed from their medium, rinsed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and placed in a 96-well culture plate. Cell viability was determined as reported [19]. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8, 20 mL/well, Dojindo Chemical Institute, Kumamoto, Japan) was added to each well, followed by further culture for 3 h (5 CO 2, 37uC, 100 relative humidity). Then, the constructs were removed, and the optical density of each well at 450 nm was measured with an ELISA reader (reference wavelength: 655 nm), with cell-free DMB scaffolds as the controls.Construction of implants and GroupingFour kinds of bone substitutes were constructed based on different approach of seeding and culture (Table 1). Hydrodynamic seeding and hydrodynamic culture (group A): Fifty DBM scaffolds and 5.06107 MSCs were added into the highaspect ratio vessel of a rotary cell culture system (Synthecon RCCS-1, Houston, TX, USA). The vessel was filled with 50 ml of DME/F12 culture medium (Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA) and degassed. The rotation speed was adjusted daily (18?4 rpm) to ensure that the rotating trajectories of the scaffolds would not collide with the vessel wall or converge to the center. The rotary culture system was incubated in an atmosphere of 5 CO2 and 100 relative humidity at 37uC, with daily adjustment of rotation speed and a change of medium every 48 h. Hydrogel-assisted seeding and hydrodynamic culture (group B): The fibrin glue (25 mg/ml, Tissucol, Baxter, Austria) wasALP activityThe ALP activities were measured at various time points (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 d) after seeding. The cell-scaffold constructs were rinsed twice with PBS and then lysed with 0.2 Triton X100 (Sigma, USA). The lysate was centrifuged at 600 g for 5 min and the supernatant was collected and incubated for 15 min (5 CO2, 37uC, 100 relative humidity). The absorbance at 405 nm was measured on a microplate reader and converted into the ALP activity against a standard curve, which was established based on the reaction of 10 ml of a p-nitrophenyl solution (Wako) andEffects of Initial Cell and Hydrodynamic CultureTable 1. Summary of in vitro preparation of cell-scaffold constructs.Group A B C DSeeding method Hydrodynamic Hydrogel-assisted Static Hydrogel-assistedCulture condition Hydrodynamic Hydrodynamic Static StaticCell suspension concentration per scaffold 1.06106 cells/ml 2.0610 cells/ml 2.06107 15755315 cells/ml 2.0610 cells/ml7Cell suspension volume per scaffold 1.00 ml 0.05 ml 0.05 ml 0.05 mlCell number per scaffold 1.06106 1.Seeding efficiency ( ) 32.1060.72# 82.1461.09 25.2461.56* 81.5361.1.06106 1.*: seeding efficiency in group C was lower than that in other groups (p,0.05); # : seeding efficiency in group A was lower than that in group B and D (p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053697.t200 ml of substrate buffer for 30 min. ALP activities were expressed as U values.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)All specimens per group were was treated by a series of procedures for SEM observation after 14-day culture, including incubating in 3 (w/v) glutaraldehyde solution for 48 h at 4uC, washing over-night with 0.1 M PBS solution, decalcifying with 0.5 mol/L EDTA for 7 days, washing over-night with 0.1 M PBS solution, incubating in 2.5 glutaraldehyde solution for 48 h at 4uC, and post-fixing and staining with 1 osmium tetroxide for 2 h at 4uC, dehydrating in a graded series of ethanol, coa.

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