S: GW LS YZ. Analyzed the data: PFS. Wrote the paper

S: GW LS YZ. Analyzed the data: PFS. Wrote the paper: PFS YZ.
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are progenitor cells derived from mesodermal progenitor cells in early embryogenesis, and are responsible for initial vascularization in both embryo body and extra-embryonic tissues through a process defined as vasculogenesis [1,2]. In the past decade it has been recognized that EPCs also exist in adult tissues, mostly in bone marrow (BM), and take part in neovascularization at the sites of ischemia in disease models. EPCs can be mobilized from BM and can home to wounded tissues [3,4], where they can differentiate into endothelial cells (EC) to directly participate in vasculogenesis, and/or to produce angiogenic factors to contribute to vascular remodeling. Moreover, a large body of evidence has suggested that EPCs have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of ischemic diseases [5]. For example, several groups have shown the roles of EPC in liver regeneration and in the therapy of liver cirrhosis [6,7]. However, the effects of EPCs on the repair of Calcitonin (salmon) tissue damages appear varied as reported by researchers in different sets of preclinical and clinical studies [8]. This inconsistency is at least partially attributable to the heterogeneous nature of EPCs [9].EPCs in BM or just entering the peripheral blood express stem cell markers such as CD34 and CD133, together with VEGFR2 (KDR). Along with in vitro culturing and maturation, the cells gradually lost stem cell markers, and begin to express EC-specific antigens such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) and VE-cadherin, among others [10]. Other researchers have suggested that EPCs is composed of endothelial lineage cells at different differentiation stages [11]. Two types of EPCs have been identified from in vitro cultured EPCs, which are supposed to have different cellular origins [12,13]. Early EPCs (EEPCs) are spindle-like in shape, and have limited proliferative potential and can be cultivated no more than 4 weeks in vitro. Endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) or late EPCs, in contrast, have a cobblestone-like appearance and maintain a high proliferative potential. EEPCs are myeloid endothelial progenitor cells, originating from CD14+ monocytic cells, while OECs are derived from CD142 cells. But further defining different subpopulations of EPCs and understanding their roles and mechanisms in vascularization is still required. EOCs and EEPCs can be involved in the formation of new blood vessels through different mechanisms such as differentiatingNotch Regulates EEPCs and EOCs Differentiallyinto ECs or producing angiogenic cytokines [14?7]. Signals regulating their mobilization and functions have been elusive. Among the molecules identified so far, such as angiogenic factors [18], integrins [19] and adhesion molecules [20], the stromaderived factor (SDF)-1a-CXCR4-mediated signaling plays an 548-04-9 site important role in the trafficking and the homing of EPCs [21?5]. SDF-1a induced by hypoxia inducible factor (Hif)-1a enhances the adhesion, migration, and homing of circulating CXCR4-positive EPCs to ischemic tissues [22,26]. Another important signaling pathway in EPCs is the Notch receptor-mediated signaling. The Notch pathway is highly conserved in evolution, and plays an essential role in cell fate determination in multiple lineages of stem and progenitor cells [27]. There are five Notch ligands (Jagged1, 2, and Delta-like [Dll]1, 3, 4) and four Notch receptors (Notch1?) in mam.S: GW LS YZ. Analyzed the data: PFS. Wrote the paper: PFS YZ.
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are progenitor cells derived from mesodermal progenitor cells in early embryogenesis, and are responsible for initial vascularization in both embryo body and extra-embryonic tissues through a process defined as vasculogenesis [1,2]. In the past decade it has been recognized that EPCs also exist in adult tissues, mostly in bone marrow (BM), and take part in neovascularization at the sites of ischemia in disease models. EPCs can be mobilized from BM and can home to wounded tissues [3,4], where they can differentiate into endothelial cells (EC) to directly participate in vasculogenesis, and/or to produce angiogenic factors to contribute to vascular remodeling. Moreover, a large body of evidence has suggested that EPCs have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of ischemic diseases [5]. For example, several groups have shown the roles of EPC in liver regeneration and in the therapy of liver cirrhosis [6,7]. However, the effects of EPCs on the repair of tissue damages appear varied as reported by researchers in different sets of preclinical and clinical studies [8]. This inconsistency is at least partially attributable to the heterogeneous nature of EPCs [9].EPCs in BM or just entering the peripheral blood express stem cell markers such as CD34 and CD133, together with VEGFR2 (KDR). Along with in vitro culturing and maturation, the cells gradually lost stem cell markers, and begin to express EC-specific antigens such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) and VE-cadherin, among others [10]. Other researchers have suggested that EPCs is composed of endothelial lineage cells at different differentiation stages [11]. Two types of EPCs have been identified from in vitro cultured EPCs, which are supposed to have different cellular origins [12,13]. Early EPCs (EEPCs) are spindle-like in shape, and have limited proliferative potential and can be cultivated no more than 4 weeks in vitro. Endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) or late EPCs, in contrast, have a cobblestone-like appearance and maintain a high proliferative potential. EEPCs are myeloid endothelial progenitor cells, originating from CD14+ monocytic cells, while OECs are derived from CD142 cells. But further defining different subpopulations of EPCs and understanding their roles and mechanisms in vascularization is still required. EOCs and EEPCs can be involved in the formation of new blood vessels through different mechanisms such as differentiatingNotch Regulates EEPCs and EOCs Differentiallyinto ECs or producing angiogenic cytokines [14?7]. Signals regulating their mobilization and functions have been elusive. Among the molecules identified so far, such as angiogenic factors [18], integrins [19] and adhesion molecules [20], the stromaderived factor (SDF)-1a-CXCR4-mediated signaling plays an important role in the trafficking and the homing of EPCs [21?5]. SDF-1a induced by hypoxia inducible factor (Hif)-1a enhances the adhesion, migration, and homing of circulating CXCR4-positive EPCs to ischemic tissues [22,26]. Another important signaling pathway in EPCs is the Notch receptor-mediated signaling. The Notch pathway is highly conserved in evolution, and plays an essential role in cell fate determination in multiple lineages of stem and progenitor cells [27]. There are five Notch ligands (Jagged1, 2, and Delta-like [Dll]1, 3, 4) and four Notch receptors (Notch1?) in mam.

Leave a Reply