Cholerae [30]. As RGVCs killed close relatives such as V. harveyi (Figure

Cholerae [30]. As RGVCs killed close relatives such as V. harveyi (Figure 7), we wondered if the RGVC isolates have the ability to kill each other. We hypothesized that if RGVC isolates use different toxins (and antitoxins), the T6SS might be used for intraspecific competition. We predicted that immunity of an RGVC isolate would be lost when approached 25033180 by a V. cholerae bacterium with a different set of T6SS toxins to which the former lacks the corresponding antitoxin gene. To test this hypothesis, we mixed V52, DL4211, and DL4215 (predators) with smooth and rough RGVC isolates as prey bacteria. To eliminate the killing activity of smooth T6SS+ prey, we used vasK-deficient mutants with a disabled T6SS as prey. Rough wild-type RGVC isolates were used as prey since they do not express Hcp (Figure 3)VasH Complementation in Rough RGVC IsolatesWe tested whether heterologous Octapressin site expression of vasH in the T6SS-silent RGVC isolates DL2111 and DL2112 restored T6SS-dependent protein synthesis/secretion. Myc-tagged vasH from V52 was cloned into pBAD18 to episomally express vasH. V52DvasH/pBAD18-vasH::myc was used as a control for the arabinose-dependent expression of vasH. As shown in Figure 6, episomal vasH::myc expression in V52DvasH induced Hcp production and subsequent secretion, while only synthesis but not secretion was restored in the rough RGVC isolates.Competition Mechanisms of V. choleraeand are thus T6SS-negative. Following a 4-hour coincubation, we determined the number of surviving prey. T6SS-negative prey bacteria were not killed by their isogenic T6SS+ parent strain, but were killed by other T6SS+ isolates (Figure 8A ). Exposure to a predator with a disabled T6SS resulted in about 108 surviving prey bacteria. Similar numbers of surviving prey were obtained when the prey was mixed with an isogenic strain that was marked with a different antibiotic resistance cassette (data not shown). Thus, killing of T6SS-negative prey required a functional T6SS. Surprisingly, the vasK mutant of DL4215 displayed virulence towards V52DvasK, but not against DL4211DvasK or a differentlymarked DL4215DvasK sister strain (Figure 8C). Since DL4215DvasK does not kill V. communis, V. harveyi, or P. phenolica (Figure 7), we hypothesize that DL4215 exhibits some GNF-7 site degree of selective T6SS-independent antimicrobial activity against V52DvasK. In conclusion, V. cholerae uses its T6SS not solely for competition with bacterial neighbors (Figure 7), but also for competition within its own species (Figure 8D).DiscussionWe examined environmental smooth and rough V. cholerae isolates (RGVCs) collected at two locations along the Rio Grande to study T6SS regulation in V. cholerae exposed to microbial competitors and predators. Our study showed that smooth RGVC isolates use their T6SS to kill other Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the Rio Grande delta. Deletion of the T6SS gene vasK resulted in a loss of bacterial killing. Importantly, the killing phenotype was restored by vasK complementation in trans. The requirement of VasK for killing implies that a constitutively active T6SS provides smooth RGVC isolates with a competitive advantage compared to their bacterial neighbors. By killing other bacteria, RGVC isolates might enhance their own survival in their environmental niche. In addition, we found that V. cholerae isolates use their T6SS to compete against each other. In our experiments, Hcp synthesis and secretion correlated with eukaryotic and prokaryotic host cell kill.Cholerae [30]. As RGVCs killed close relatives such as V. harveyi (Figure 7), we wondered if the RGVC isolates have the ability to kill each other. We hypothesized that if RGVC isolates use different toxins (and antitoxins), the T6SS might be used for intraspecific competition. We predicted that immunity of an RGVC isolate would be lost when approached 25033180 by a V. cholerae bacterium with a different set of T6SS toxins to which the former lacks the corresponding antitoxin gene. To test this hypothesis, we mixed V52, DL4211, and DL4215 (predators) with smooth and rough RGVC isolates as prey bacteria. To eliminate the killing activity of smooth T6SS+ prey, we used vasK-deficient mutants with a disabled T6SS as prey. Rough wild-type RGVC isolates were used as prey since they do not express Hcp (Figure 3)VasH Complementation in Rough RGVC IsolatesWe tested whether heterologous expression of vasH in the T6SS-silent RGVC isolates DL2111 and DL2112 restored T6SS-dependent protein synthesis/secretion. Myc-tagged vasH from V52 was cloned into pBAD18 to episomally express vasH. V52DvasH/pBAD18-vasH::myc was used as a control for the arabinose-dependent expression of vasH. As shown in Figure 6, episomal vasH::myc expression in V52DvasH induced Hcp production and subsequent secretion, while only synthesis but not secretion was restored in the rough RGVC isolates.Competition Mechanisms of V. choleraeand are thus T6SS-negative. Following a 4-hour coincubation, we determined the number of surviving prey. T6SS-negative prey bacteria were not killed by their isogenic T6SS+ parent strain, but were killed by other T6SS+ isolates (Figure 8A ). Exposure to a predator with a disabled T6SS resulted in about 108 surviving prey bacteria. Similar numbers of surviving prey were obtained when the prey was mixed with an isogenic strain that was marked with a different antibiotic resistance cassette (data not shown). Thus, killing of T6SS-negative prey required a functional T6SS. Surprisingly, the vasK mutant of DL4215 displayed virulence towards V52DvasK, but not against DL4211DvasK or a differentlymarked DL4215DvasK sister strain (Figure 8C). Since DL4215DvasK does not kill V. communis, V. harveyi, or P. phenolica (Figure 7), we hypothesize that DL4215 exhibits some degree of selective T6SS-independent antimicrobial activity against V52DvasK. In conclusion, V. cholerae uses its T6SS not solely for competition with bacterial neighbors (Figure 7), but also for competition within its own species (Figure 8D).DiscussionWe examined environmental smooth and rough V. cholerae isolates (RGVCs) collected at two locations along the Rio Grande to study T6SS regulation in V. cholerae exposed to microbial competitors and predators. Our study showed that smooth RGVC isolates use their T6SS to kill other Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the Rio Grande delta. Deletion of the T6SS gene vasK resulted in a loss of bacterial killing. Importantly, the killing phenotype was restored by vasK complementation in trans. The requirement of VasK for killing implies that a constitutively active T6SS provides smooth RGVC isolates with a competitive advantage compared to their bacterial neighbors. By killing other bacteria, RGVC isolates might enhance their own survival in their environmental niche. In addition, we found that V. cholerae isolates use their T6SS to compete against each other. In our experiments, Hcp synthesis and secretion correlated with eukaryotic and prokaryotic host cell kill.

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