Ificantly more movement time and less rest time when compared to

Ificantly more movement time and less rest time when compared to vehicleOmigapil Treatment in dy2J MiceTable 1. Baseline Title Loaded From File outcome measures for BL6 control and dy2J mice at 12?5 weeks of age show decreased body weights, forelimb grip strength, vertical activity and Title Loaded From File increased heart rates in dy2J mice.dy2J Mean ?SD 3461 6361 459623 757672 10586101 1.7860.06 N 10 10 10 10 10 9 Mean ?SD 3361 6361 524618 741659 1070668 1.7060.11 12866247; 1213 (954?784) 3386144; 304 (115?71) 47619; 45 (18?2) 553619; 555 (508?82) 664; 5 (0?5) 0.07360.010 3.97360.664 18.661.8 0.1421 0.9125 ,0.001 0.6365 0.7868 0.1060 0.2938 0.2678 0.7483 0.7263 0.0002 ,0.001 0.1095 ,0.MeasurementBL6 NP-valueFS EF Heart rate (BPM) PA velocity (mm/s) Ao velocity (mm/s) E/A ratio Horizontal activity* Total distance (cm)* Movement time(second)* Rest time(second)* Vertical activity* GSM forelimb (KGF) Normalized GSM forelimb (KGF/kg) Body weight (g)6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 16574785 6 6 6 6 615106564; 1578 (712?390)21 4316219; 389 (156?11) 52627; 48 (19?9) 548627; 553 (501?81) 2769; 25 (16?1) 0.11260.014 4.51960.871 25.163.7 21 21 21 21 21 21*Non-parametric comparison of medians; data expressed as mean 6 SD; median (range). Abbreviations: FS ?percent fractional shortening, EF- percent ejection fraction, BPM- beats per minute, Om ?omigapil, SD ?standard deviation, PA ?pulmonary artery, Ao ?aortic, E/A ?ratio of mitral valve E and A wave velocities, GSM ?grip strength meter, KGF ?kilogram-force. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065468.ttreated dy2J mice. There were no significant differences seen in other parameters, although the values for the dy2J mice were decreased for all parameters and only showed slight improvements with omigapil treatment. Functional assessments. At the completion of the trial, dy2J mice treated with 0.1 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly increased respiratory rates compared to vehicle treated dy2J mice. Respiratory rates for omigapil treated mice were similar to control mice. Treatment with omigapil did not alter cardiac function or in vitro force testing. Longitudinal changes in selected outcome measures are shown in Figure S1. Individual measures for selected outcomes and age of measurement are shown in Figure S2. Histological assessment. In the gastrocnemius, the dy2J group treated with 0.1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly decreased fibrosis compared to the vehicle treated dy2J mice. dy2J mice treated with 1 and 0.1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly decreased fibrosis in the diaphragm compared to the vehicle and the 0.1 mg/kg omigapil treated dy2J mice were also significantly decreased compared to the 1 mg/kg treatment group. Both 1 and 0.1 mg/kg omigapil treatment led to a significant decrease in the percent area of degenerating fibers and percent centralized nuclei per fiber in the gastrocnemius compared to vehicle treated mice. (Figure 1). TUNEL assay. There was a decrease in the percent TUNEL positive nuclei per field in omigapil treated dy2J mice. The differences between vehicle and each of the treatments are significant alone, but when adjusted for multiple comparisons by comparing each group to the others, they do not reach significance. (Figure 2).Analysis of values as a percentage of mean wild type values. Table S1 demonstrates how the outcome measures inrespiratory rate and less increased fibrosis in both gastrocnemius and diaphragm when compared to vehicle treated mice. The dy2J mice treated with 1 mg/kg/day omigapil also showed significantly less dec.Ificantly more movement time and less rest time when compared to vehicleOmigapil Treatment in dy2J MiceTable 1. Baseline outcome measures for BL6 control and dy2J mice at 12?5 weeks of age show decreased body weights, forelimb grip strength, vertical activity and increased heart rates in dy2J mice.dy2J Mean ?SD 3461 6361 459623 757672 10586101 1.7860.06 N 10 10 10 10 10 9 Mean ?SD 3361 6361 524618 741659 1070668 1.7060.11 12866247; 1213 (954?784) 3386144; 304 (115?71) 47619; 45 (18?2) 553619; 555 (508?82) 664; 5 (0?5) 0.07360.010 3.97360.664 18.661.8 0.1421 0.9125 ,0.001 0.6365 0.7868 0.1060 0.2938 0.2678 0.7483 0.7263 0.0002 ,0.001 0.1095 ,0.MeasurementBL6 NP-valueFS EF Heart rate (BPM) PA velocity (mm/s) Ao velocity (mm/s) E/A ratio Horizontal activity* Total distance (cm)* Movement time(second)* Rest time(second)* Vertical activity* GSM forelimb (KGF) Normalized GSM forelimb (KGF/kg) Body weight (g)6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 16574785 6 6 6 6 615106564; 1578 (712?390)21 4316219; 389 (156?11) 52627; 48 (19?9) 548627; 553 (501?81) 2769; 25 (16?1) 0.11260.014 4.51960.871 25.163.7 21 21 21 21 21 21*Non-parametric comparison of medians; data expressed as mean 6 SD; median (range). Abbreviations: FS ?percent fractional shortening, EF- percent ejection fraction, BPM- beats per minute, Om ?omigapil, SD ?standard deviation, PA ?pulmonary artery, Ao ?aortic, E/A ?ratio of mitral valve E and A wave velocities, GSM ?grip strength meter, KGF ?kilogram-force. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065468.ttreated dy2J mice. There were no significant differences seen in other parameters, although the values for the dy2J mice were decreased for all parameters and only showed slight improvements with omigapil treatment. Functional assessments. At the completion of the trial, dy2J mice treated with 0.1 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly increased respiratory rates compared to vehicle treated dy2J mice. Respiratory rates for omigapil treated mice were similar to control mice. Treatment with omigapil did not alter cardiac function or in vitro force testing. Longitudinal changes in selected outcome measures are shown in Figure S1. Individual measures for selected outcomes and age of measurement are shown in Figure S2. Histological assessment. In the gastrocnemius, the dy2J group treated with 0.1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly decreased fibrosis compared to the vehicle treated dy2J mice. dy2J mice treated with 1 and 0.1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly decreased fibrosis in the diaphragm compared to the vehicle and the 0.1 mg/kg omigapil treated dy2J mice were also significantly decreased compared to the 1 mg/kg treatment group. Both 1 and 0.1 mg/kg omigapil treatment led to a significant decrease in the percent area of degenerating fibers and percent centralized nuclei per fiber in the gastrocnemius compared to vehicle treated mice. (Figure 1). TUNEL assay. There was a decrease in the percent TUNEL positive nuclei per field in omigapil treated dy2J mice. The differences between vehicle and each of the treatments are significant alone, but when adjusted for multiple comparisons by comparing each group to the others, they do not reach significance. (Figure 2).Analysis of values as a percentage of mean wild type values. Table S1 demonstrates how the outcome measures inrespiratory rate and less increased fibrosis in both gastrocnemius and diaphragm when compared to vehicle treated mice. The dy2J mice treated with 1 mg/kg/day omigapil also showed significantly less dec.

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