AlciumCa2+ Alternans and RyR2 RefractorinessFigure 5. Mechanism underlying the onset of alternans

AlciumCa2+ AKT inhibitor 2 alternans and RyR2 RefractorinessFigure 5. Mechanism underlying the onset of alternans at different activation and inactivation rates. A) Color-code graph showing the amplitude of the cytosolic alternans at 3 Hz. Blue indicates the absence of alternans and dark red the biggest alternation. B) The same simulations as in A) but with SR Ca loading clamped at presystolic values. C) The same simulations as in A) but with the fraction of recovered RyRs clamped at presystolic values. D) Lines denoting the onset of alternans under: normal (un-clamped) conditions (red line), clamped SR Ca load (green line), and clamped fraction of recovered RyRs (blue line). The gray area represents the region with irregular behavior under un-clamped conditions. These lines delimitate 23977191 the regions where alternations in SR calcium load (“L”) and RyR2 recovery (“R”) are responsible for calcium alternans. “R,L” indicate the region where alternations in either recovery of RyR2s from inactivation or SR Ca load are capable of maintaining alternans, while “R+L” requires alternation in both mechanisms to sustain cytosolic calcium alternans. The four asterisks correspond to the four examples shown in Figure 4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055042.gdynamics under steady-state conditions. Taking into account that elevation of the stimulation frequency induces beat-to-beat alternations in the cytosolic calcium transient upon elevation of the stimulation frequency [4], [7], [9], we identified modifications of the gating properties of the RyR2 (such as its activation time, inactivation time, and/or the recovery time from inactivation) that were necessary for the model to reproduce these phenomena. For the present analysis activation times ranged from 0.01 to 1x the values used by Shannon et al [17]. These values were chosen to cover the range where alternans could be induced, but it has also been shown that mutations in the TM10 region of the RyR2 can in fact reduce the RyR2 sensitivity to Ca2+ activation by as much as 1,000 fold less than the wild type [20]. For inactivation Table 1. Mechanisms of calcium alternans.times, we used values that ranged from 0.01 to 2x the value employed by Shannon et al [17], which is also consistent with reports showing that the failure to completely terminate Ca2+ release following channel stimulation may arise as a consequence of a loss of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (8- to 10-fold) [21]. The present RyR2 model includes inactivation Fexinidazole biological activity processes on a fast time scale, giving rise to refractoriness in release. This is contrary to the behavior in single RyR2 dynamics, where refractoriness of gating has never been observed and inactivation processes are too slow to be significant on a beat-to-beat time scale. Thus, the RyR2 dynamics in the present model must be understood as phenomenologically modeling the collective behavior of several RyR2s orMechanism “R” Clamping protocol SR Clamping RyR2 Clamping Alternans Persists Alternans Disappears “L” Alternans Disappears Alternans Persists “R+L” Alternans Disappears Alternans Disappears “R, L” Alternans Persists Alternans Persists“R” stands for alternans due to alternation in RyR2 recovery from inactivation, “L” stands for alternans due to alternation in SR Ca load, “R+L” stands for alternans that require both oscillations in the recovery of RyR2s and in SR Ca load. Finally, “R,L” stands for alternans where both mechanisms contribute but either can sustain it. The case where.AlciumCa2+ Alternans and RyR2 RefractorinessFigure 5. Mechanism underlying the onset of alternans at different activation and inactivation rates. A) Color-code graph showing the amplitude of the cytosolic alternans at 3 Hz. Blue indicates the absence of alternans and dark red the biggest alternation. B) The same simulations as in A) but with SR Ca loading clamped at presystolic values. C) The same simulations as in A) but with the fraction of recovered RyRs clamped at presystolic values. D) Lines denoting the onset of alternans under: normal (un-clamped) conditions (red line), clamped SR Ca load (green line), and clamped fraction of recovered RyRs (blue line). The gray area represents the region with irregular behavior under un-clamped conditions. These lines delimitate 23977191 the regions where alternations in SR calcium load (“L”) and RyR2 recovery (“R”) are responsible for calcium alternans. “R,L” indicate the region where alternations in either recovery of RyR2s from inactivation or SR Ca load are capable of maintaining alternans, while “R+L” requires alternation in both mechanisms to sustain cytosolic calcium alternans. The four asterisks correspond to the four examples shown in Figure 4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055042.gdynamics under steady-state conditions. Taking into account that elevation of the stimulation frequency induces beat-to-beat alternations in the cytosolic calcium transient upon elevation of the stimulation frequency [4], [7], [9], we identified modifications of the gating properties of the RyR2 (such as its activation time, inactivation time, and/or the recovery time from inactivation) that were necessary for the model to reproduce these phenomena. For the present analysis activation times ranged from 0.01 to 1x the values used by Shannon et al [17]. These values were chosen to cover the range where alternans could be induced, but it has also been shown that mutations in the TM10 region of the RyR2 can in fact reduce the RyR2 sensitivity to Ca2+ activation by as much as 1,000 fold less than the wild type [20]. For inactivation Table 1. Mechanisms of calcium alternans.times, we used values that ranged from 0.01 to 2x the value employed by Shannon et al [17], which is also consistent with reports showing that the failure to completely terminate Ca2+ release following channel stimulation may arise as a consequence of a loss of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (8- to 10-fold) [21]. The present RyR2 model includes inactivation processes on a fast time scale, giving rise to refractoriness in release. This is contrary to the behavior in single RyR2 dynamics, where refractoriness of gating has never been observed and inactivation processes are too slow to be significant on a beat-to-beat time scale. Thus, the RyR2 dynamics in the present model must be understood as phenomenologically modeling the collective behavior of several RyR2s orMechanism “R” Clamping protocol SR Clamping RyR2 Clamping Alternans Persists Alternans Disappears “L” Alternans Disappears Alternans Persists “R+L” Alternans Disappears Alternans Disappears “R, L” Alternans Persists Alternans Persists“R” stands for alternans due to alternation in RyR2 recovery from inactivation, “L” stands for alternans due to alternation in SR Ca load, “R+L” stands for alternans that require both oscillations in the recovery of RyR2s and in SR Ca load. Finally, “R,L” stands for alternans where both mechanisms contribute but either can sustain it. The case where.

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