Ches were dropped into a 1 m long glass cylinder. Flies that

Ches were dropped into a 1 m long glass cylinder. Flies that fell through directly into a chilled conical flask were scored as non-fliers and those that flew and sat on the walls of the cylinder were scored as fliers. Computation of means and SEMs were performed on results obtained from at least 100 flies, using Origin 7.5 software (MicroCal, Origin Lab, 25033180 Northampton, MA, USA) and statistical significance was determined by Student’s t test for independent populations, p,0.05.Temperature shift experimentsGenetic crosses were set up with Shits lines at the permissive temperature of 25uC. White pupae (0 hr) were shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (29uC) until eclosion. Animals were further aged for three days at 29uC, till they were tested for flight. For adult specific experiments, 2 day old flies were shifted to 29uC and kept at this TA 02 web non-permissive temperature for one day and thereafter tested for flight. For electrophysiological experiments, tethered flies were maintained in a moist chamber at 29uC for 1 hr before the actual recordings, which were carried out as rapidly as possible at room temperature (approximately 25uC).Electrophysiological recordingsFlies were anaesthetized on ice for 15 min and glued to a thin metal wire between the neck and the thorax with nail polish [8]. To record air puff responses, a gentle mouth-blown air puff stimulus was delivered to the fly kept in a tethered condition and movie was recorded for 30 s. Physiological recordings were performed on DLMs of the GF pathway. After recovery from anesthesia, an un-insulated 0.127 mm tungsten electrode, whose tip was sharpened by electrolysis to attain a tip diameter of 0.5 mm, was carefully inserted in the DLM (fiber a), just beneath the cuticle. A similar electrode was inserted in the abdomen as reference. Spontaneous firing was recorded for 2 min and air puffinduced recordings were performed for 30 s. All recordings were made using an ISODAM8A (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, Florida, USA) amplifier with filter set up for 30 HzFigure 2. Synaptic activity in serotonergic neurons is required both during pupal development and in adults for flight. A) Flies with Shits expression in serotonergic neurons throughout pupal development (0 h after puparium formation, APF) exhibit a 50 flight deficit in the column test. A lesser but significant deficit is also seen in flies MedChemExpress 1113-59-3 expressing Shits 2 days post eclosion. B) Air-puff stimulated flight response from the DLMs. Control flies, expressing Shits in dopaminergic neurons and maintained at 25uC show rhythmic flight patterns. Animals expressing Shits 2 days post-eclosion can initiate flight (5/15). Remaining flies show wild-type flight patterns. Shits expression throughout pupal development causes complete loss of electrical activity in 8/15 flies. Remaining flies show wild-type flight patterns. C) Quantification of air-puff stimulated spike frequency. The traces are presented as an average of the 16574785 indicated numbers. Control flies expressing Shits at the permissive temperature (25uC) show a spike frequency of 9 Hz (15 flies). Shits expression at the non-permissive temperature (29uC) during pupal development shows complete loss of spikes in all the intervals in 8/15 flies (group 1), while the remaining flies (group 2) show spike patterns like the controls. When flies expressing Shits are maintained at 29uC from 2-days post eclosion, the spike frequency at initiation remains low (2 Hz) and then diminishes further in 5/.Ches were dropped into a 1 m long glass cylinder. Flies that fell through directly into a chilled conical flask were scored as non-fliers and those that flew and sat on the walls of the cylinder were scored as fliers. Computation of means and SEMs were performed on results obtained from at least 100 flies, using Origin 7.5 software (MicroCal, Origin Lab, 25033180 Northampton, MA, USA) and statistical significance was determined by Student’s t test for independent populations, p,0.05.Temperature shift experimentsGenetic crosses were set up with Shits lines at the permissive temperature of 25uC. White pupae (0 hr) were shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (29uC) until eclosion. Animals were further aged for three days at 29uC, till they were tested for flight. For adult specific experiments, 2 day old flies were shifted to 29uC and kept at this non-permissive temperature for one day and thereafter tested for flight. For electrophysiological experiments, tethered flies were maintained in a moist chamber at 29uC for 1 hr before the actual recordings, which were carried out as rapidly as possible at room temperature (approximately 25uC).Electrophysiological recordingsFlies were anaesthetized on ice for 15 min and glued to a thin metal wire between the neck and the thorax with nail polish [8]. To record air puff responses, a gentle mouth-blown air puff stimulus was delivered to the fly kept in a tethered condition and movie was recorded for 30 s. Physiological recordings were performed on DLMs of the GF pathway. After recovery from anesthesia, an un-insulated 0.127 mm tungsten electrode, whose tip was sharpened by electrolysis to attain a tip diameter of 0.5 mm, was carefully inserted in the DLM (fiber a), just beneath the cuticle. A similar electrode was inserted in the abdomen as reference. Spontaneous firing was recorded for 2 min and air puffinduced recordings were performed for 30 s. All recordings were made using an ISODAM8A (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, Florida, USA) amplifier with filter set up for 30 HzFigure 2. Synaptic activity in serotonergic neurons is required both during pupal development and in adults for flight. A) Flies with Shits expression in serotonergic neurons throughout pupal development (0 h after puparium formation, APF) exhibit a 50 flight deficit in the column test. A lesser but significant deficit is also seen in flies expressing Shits 2 days post eclosion. B) Air-puff stimulated flight response from the DLMs. Control flies, expressing Shits in dopaminergic neurons and maintained at 25uC show rhythmic flight patterns. Animals expressing Shits 2 days post-eclosion can initiate flight (5/15). Remaining flies show wild-type flight patterns. Shits expression throughout pupal development causes complete loss of electrical activity in 8/15 flies. Remaining flies show wild-type flight patterns. C) Quantification of air-puff stimulated spike frequency. The traces are presented as an average of the 16574785 indicated numbers. Control flies expressing Shits at the permissive temperature (25uC) show a spike frequency of 9 Hz (15 flies). Shits expression at the non-permissive temperature (29uC) during pupal development shows complete loss of spikes in all the intervals in 8/15 flies (group 1), while the remaining flies (group 2) show spike patterns like the controls. When flies expressing Shits are maintained at 29uC from 2-days post eclosion, the spike frequency at initiation remains low (2 Hz) and then diminishes further in 5/.

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