E diet-induced obesity mice were fed the HFD in the control

E diet-induced obesity mice were fed the HFD in the control group or a modified HFD in the experimental group, in which the carbohydrate source was replaced with the resveratrol-enriched rice (Table S3). We periodically monitored the changes 22948146 in the blood profiles and body weight in each mouse group under continuous HFD conditions (Table 1 and Figure 5). Compared with the HFD control, supplementation with resveratrol at the same level as that produced by RS18 resulted in modest improvement, consistent with previous reports on the effects of resveratrol on metabolic syndrome and related diseases [1,19,20]. The consumption of Dongjin rice also resulted in a Fruquintinib site similar improvement in lipid profile and blood glucose levels, as expected due to its endogenic nature. Notably, the consumption of the resveratrol-enriched Dongjin rice significantly improved all aspects of metabolic syndrome and related diseases, lowering the blood glucose by 22.0 , triacylglycerol by 37.4 , total cholesterol by 27.0 , and LDL cholesterol by 59.6 , whilst increasing the HDL cholesterol by 14.8 (RS18 compared with the HFD control). An RS18-half group with a modified HFD, in which only half the amount of corn starch was replaced by RS18 rice, failed to have an effect similar to that observed in the RS18 group, indicating a dose-dependent effect ofResveratrol Analysis of Transgenic RiceTo assess the biosynthetic profile of the transgene in Dongjin rice, we analyzed resveratrol and the related resveratrol glucoside piceid from all tissues of the transgenic rice plants using HPLC. The health benefits of piceid are less than resveratrol [14,15]. In the wild-type Dongjin rice, HPLC analysis failed to detect resveratrol or piceid (Figure 2B). In the leaves of the transgenic rice plant, however, we detected high POR-8 supplier levels of piceid ranging from 1.2?74.4 mg/g and low levels of resveratrol ranging from 0?8.9 mg/g (Figure 3A). On the other hand, the grains of the transgenic rice contained comparable levels of resveratrol (0.1?4.8 mg/g) but a relatively low quantity of piceid (0.1?0.4 mg/g) compared with the corresponding levels in the leaves (Figure 2C and 3B). These quantities in the grain of the transgenic rice are similar to the levels of resveratrol (0.8?.8 mg/mL) reported in high-quality red wine [16]. Based on agricultural, biochemical, and genetic traits, we chose the homozygous transgenic line RS18 as a candidate strain for further experiments. The RS18 lineTransgenic Rice with Resveratrol-Enriched GrainsFigure 1. Molecular characterization of transgenic rice lines expressing AhSTS1. (A) Southern blot analysis. Genomic DNA in lanes P and RS1 to RS22 were digested with BamHI (specific to the T-DNA region). The arrow indicates the fragment (1.2 kb) hybridized with the AhSTS1 cDNA probe. P, pSB2220 vector; N, non-transgenic wild-type Dongjin; lanes RS1 – RS22, representative transgenic Dongjin lines out of 129 T1 samples. (B) RT-PCR analysis. Total RNA from leaf samples of the same lines as in (A) was analyzed. OsUBQ5 was included as a PCR control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057930.gthe resveratrol-enriched rice. As expected from the blood profiles, body weights were greatly reduced in mice fed the resveratrolenriched rice (RS18 group; 24.7 compared with the control) and was different from the other treatments (the resveratrol supplementation group, Dongjin rice group, and RS18-half group) (Figure 5A). Micro-CT image analysis of abdominal fat deposition showed that the total,.E diet-induced obesity mice were fed the HFD in the control group or a modified HFD in the experimental group, in which the carbohydrate source was replaced with the resveratrol-enriched rice (Table S3). We periodically monitored the changes 22948146 in the blood profiles and body weight in each mouse group under continuous HFD conditions (Table 1 and Figure 5). Compared with the HFD control, supplementation with resveratrol at the same level as that produced by RS18 resulted in modest improvement, consistent with previous reports on the effects of resveratrol on metabolic syndrome and related diseases [1,19,20]. The consumption of Dongjin rice also resulted in a similar improvement in lipid profile and blood glucose levels, as expected due to its endogenic nature. Notably, the consumption of the resveratrol-enriched Dongjin rice significantly improved all aspects of metabolic syndrome and related diseases, lowering the blood glucose by 22.0 , triacylglycerol by 37.4 , total cholesterol by 27.0 , and LDL cholesterol by 59.6 , whilst increasing the HDL cholesterol by 14.8 (RS18 compared with the HFD control). An RS18-half group with a modified HFD, in which only half the amount of corn starch was replaced by RS18 rice, failed to have an effect similar to that observed in the RS18 group, indicating a dose-dependent effect ofResveratrol Analysis of Transgenic RiceTo assess the biosynthetic profile of the transgene in Dongjin rice, we analyzed resveratrol and the related resveratrol glucoside piceid from all tissues of the transgenic rice plants using HPLC. The health benefits of piceid are less than resveratrol [14,15]. In the wild-type Dongjin rice, HPLC analysis failed to detect resveratrol or piceid (Figure 2B). In the leaves of the transgenic rice plant, however, we detected high levels of piceid ranging from 1.2?74.4 mg/g and low levels of resveratrol ranging from 0?8.9 mg/g (Figure 3A). On the other hand, the grains of the transgenic rice contained comparable levels of resveratrol (0.1?4.8 mg/g) but a relatively low quantity of piceid (0.1?0.4 mg/g) compared with the corresponding levels in the leaves (Figure 2C and 3B). These quantities in the grain of the transgenic rice are similar to the levels of resveratrol (0.8?.8 mg/mL) reported in high-quality red wine [16]. Based on agricultural, biochemical, and genetic traits, we chose the homozygous transgenic line RS18 as a candidate strain for further experiments. The RS18 lineTransgenic Rice with Resveratrol-Enriched GrainsFigure 1. Molecular characterization of transgenic rice lines expressing AhSTS1. (A) Southern blot analysis. Genomic DNA in lanes P and RS1 to RS22 were digested with BamHI (specific to the T-DNA region). The arrow indicates the fragment (1.2 kb) hybridized with the AhSTS1 cDNA probe. P, pSB2220 vector; N, non-transgenic wild-type Dongjin; lanes RS1 – RS22, representative transgenic Dongjin lines out of 129 T1 samples. (B) RT-PCR analysis. Total RNA from leaf samples of the same lines as in (A) was analyzed. OsUBQ5 was included as a PCR control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057930.gthe resveratrol-enriched rice. As expected from the blood profiles, body weights were greatly reduced in mice fed the resveratrolenriched rice (RS18 group; 24.7 compared with the control) and was different from the other treatments (the resveratrol supplementation group, Dongjin rice group, and RS18-half group) (Figure 5A). Micro-CT image analysis of abdominal fat deposition showed that the total,.

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