Venile piaucu (Leporinus macrocephalus) ?(17.5665.6 g weight), that were immature and two

Venile piaucu (Leporinus macrocephalus) ?(17.5665.6 g weight), that were immature and two months old, were used. The animals were obtained from a fish farm and were kept in stock tanks (1006100660 cm; n = 50) until the experiments. Five days before the experiments, they were transferred to individual glass aquaria (40622620 cm, ,18L) in a closed system with aerated water (pH: 7.3960.06; temperature: 26uC61uC; unionized ammonia (NH3): lower than 0.04 mg.L21) (Figure S4). During the experiment the water was not replaced to avoid disturbance. The side walls of the aquaria were 10457188 covered with opaque white paper to isolate fish from visual stimuli of conspecifics in neighboring aquaria and from the experimenter. The animals were subjected to a light/dark cycle of 12:12 h (start 07:00 and end 19:00) and fed daily with pelleted food for fish (PURINE), corresponding to 3 of their biomass. Feeding was stopped 24 hours before the experiments. All of the experiments were conducted at the same time of day (between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m.) to avoid circadian interference.minutes after the restraint, the fish were anesthetized (Buffered MS-222, methanesulfonate tricaine, 0.2 g/l, Sigma, St. Lois, USA), and their blood was sampled from the caudal vein with a non-heparinized sterile syringe. After obtaining the blood sample, the fish were killed by immersion in anesthetic solution (Buffered MS-222, 0.8 g/l). The blood was centrifuged (3000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4uC), and the serum obtained was used to analyze the cortisol concentration by radioimmunoassay (Coat-A-Count Cortisol, DPC, Los Angeles, USA) in an external laboratory. The experimenter was blind to the treatment during the analysis.Behavioral analysisA camera (Sony CCD-TRV 318) coupled to a computer with image capture software (Virtual Dub 1.6.16) was placed in front of the longest face of the aquarium to record the entire experiment (Figure S4). Locomotor activity was evaluated by examining the recording. For quantitative analysis, the distance travelled and the swimming speed during the evaluation time (5 min of Ected for measurement of triglycerides, FFAs, and ketone body levels. Plasma baseline and 5 min post-stimulus) were considered. These variables were analyzed with EthoVision XT 7.1 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, NL), and the data were expressed as the difference (D) of the values after (post-stimulus) and before (baseline) methodological interventions (D = post-stimulus aseline). The experimenter was blind to the treatment during the analysis, and a reliability test for the video analysis was performed. To ensure that the blockade of the locomotor responses elicited by noxious stimulus after restraint observed in this study were promoted by the mobilization of an endogenous antinociceptive system and not by the stress itself, a sham group was performed to evaluate the influence of the restraint in the basal locomotor activity. For this purpose, 18 animals were divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 6), which was not submitted to restraint; a group submitted to 3 min of restraint (n = 6); and a group submitted to 5 min of restraint (n = 6). Baseline behavior was recorded (5 min), and the animals were immediately restrained. The fish’s behaviors were again recorded for 5 minutes (Title Loaded From File poststimulus).DrugsFormaldehyde (Formaldehyde P.A. .C.S. 37 , pKa = 13.3, stabilized with 10 methanol, Merck, Darmstadt, FRG) was diluted in sterile saline. Approximately 20-ml of volume of 3 formaldehyde was applied subcutaneously using a 1-ml syringe and a 22.Venile piaucu (Leporinus macrocephalus) ?(17.5665.6 g weight), that were immature and two months old, were used. The animals were obtained from a fish farm and were kept in stock tanks (1006100660 cm; n = 50) until the experiments. Five days before the experiments, they were transferred to individual glass aquaria (40622620 cm, ,18L) in a closed system with aerated water (pH: 7.3960.06; temperature: 26uC61uC; unionized ammonia (NH3): lower than 0.04 mg.L21) (Figure S4). During the experiment the water was not replaced to avoid disturbance. The side walls of the aquaria were 10457188 covered with opaque white paper to isolate fish from visual stimuli of conspecifics in neighboring aquaria and from the experimenter. The animals were subjected to a light/dark cycle of 12:12 h (start 07:00 and end 19:00) and fed daily with pelleted food for fish (PURINE), corresponding to 3 of their biomass. Feeding was stopped 24 hours before the experiments. All of the experiments were conducted at the same time of day (between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m.) to avoid circadian interference.minutes after the restraint, the fish were anesthetized (Buffered MS-222, methanesulfonate tricaine, 0.2 g/l, Sigma, St. Lois, USA), and their blood was sampled from the caudal vein with a non-heparinized sterile syringe. After obtaining the blood sample, the fish were killed by immersion in anesthetic solution (Buffered MS-222, 0.8 g/l). The blood was centrifuged (3000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4uC), and the serum obtained was used to analyze the cortisol concentration by radioimmunoassay (Coat-A-Count Cortisol, DPC, Los Angeles, USA) in an external laboratory. The experimenter was blind to the treatment during the analysis.Behavioral analysisA camera (Sony CCD-TRV 318) coupled to a computer with image capture software (Virtual Dub 1.6.16) was placed in front of the longest face of the aquarium to record the entire experiment (Figure S4). Locomotor activity was evaluated by examining the recording. For quantitative analysis, the distance travelled and the swimming speed during the evaluation time (5 min of baseline and 5 min post-stimulus) were considered. These variables were analyzed with EthoVision XT 7.1 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, NL), and the data were expressed as the difference (D) of the values after (post-stimulus) and before (baseline) methodological interventions (D = post-stimulus aseline). The experimenter was blind to the treatment during the analysis, and a reliability test for the video analysis was performed. To ensure that the blockade of the locomotor responses elicited by noxious stimulus after restraint observed in this study were promoted by the mobilization of an endogenous antinociceptive system and not by the stress itself, a sham group was performed to evaluate the influence of the restraint in the basal locomotor activity. For this purpose, 18 animals were divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 6), which was not submitted to restraint; a group submitted to 3 min of restraint (n = 6); and a group submitted to 5 min of restraint (n = 6). Baseline behavior was recorded (5 min), and the animals were immediately restrained. The fish’s behaviors were again recorded for 5 minutes (poststimulus).DrugsFormaldehyde (Formaldehyde P.A. .C.S. 37 , pKa = 13.3, stabilized with 10 methanol, Merck, Darmstadt, FRG) was diluted in sterile saline. Approximately 20-ml of volume of 3 formaldehyde was applied subcutaneously using a 1-ml syringe and a 22.

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