Play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and are sustained later

Play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and are sustained later by the intact host tissue protected by MSCs transplantation [31]. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that rejection might have occurred in our study because transplant was performed in a xenograft model; therefore, further studies are needed to clarify this. Oxidative stress to the immature lung is a well-known risk factor for the development of BPD [32]. NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme complex responsible for production of superoxide anion (O22), which AZP-531 web generates other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid [20]. Upon its activation, the cytoplasmic subunits p47phox, p67phox, p40phox and Rac translocate to membrane bound cytochrome [33]. The membrane translocation of the p47phox can thus be served as an in vivo indicator of NADPH oxidase activation in the lung tissue. In our previous study [8], we have observed the dose-dependent anti-oxidative effects of intratracheal MSCs transplantation. In the present study,Timing of MSCs Injection for Hyperoxic Lung InjuryFigure 6. p47phox, cytosolic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the P21 rat lung tissue. (A): Fluorescent microscopic observation of p47phox (green) localized in the lungs of the P21 rats and the nuclei labeled with DAPI (blue) (Scale bar; 25 mm). (B): Representative western blots (top) and densitometric histograms (bottom) in the cytosol (left) and membrane (right) fractions of P21 rat lung homogenates. NC, Normoxia control group; HC, hyperoxia control group; HT3, hyperoxia with stem cell transplantation group at P3; HT10, hyperoxia with stem cell treatment group at P10; HT3+10, hyperoxia with stem cell treatment group at P3 and P10. Data; mean6SEM. *P,0.05 compared to NC, # P,0.05 compared to HC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052419.gincreased expression of the p47phox protein was observed both in the cytosolic and membrane fraction in HC. Although significant attenuation of cytosolic expression of the p47phox was observed after MSCs transplantation, a decrease in membrane translocation of the p47phox was observed in both HT3 and HT3+10, but not in HT10. These findings suggest that MSCs transplantation at the early rather than late phase of inflammation will be the optimal timing for their best anti-oxidative effects. In our previous studies [7,8], we have shown that inflammatory responses mediated by neutrophils [4] and proinflammatory cytokines [5] play a pivotal role in the development of BPD [6], and that the protective effects of MSCs therapy against hyperoxiainduced lung injuries are mediated primarily by their antiinflammatory effects rather than by their regenerating capacity. In the present study, hyperoxia-induced increase in ED1 positive alveolar macrophages, lung myeloperoxidase activity and cytokines such as IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, TNF-a measured by ELISA, other inflammatory markers such as TIMP-1, CXCL7, RANTES, L-selectin and sICAM-1 measured by protein array were consistently attenuated by MSCs administration at both early (HT3) and combined early+ late (HT3+10), but not at the late (HT10) phase of inflammation. These findings suggest a full-blownhost inflammatory micro-environment might hinder the antiinflammatory effects of the transplanted MSCs. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism 12926553 of endogenous inflammatory factors on transplanted stem cells function. In our previous studi.Play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and are sustained later by the intact host tissue protected by MSCs transplantation [31]. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that rejection might have occurred in our study because transplant was performed in a xenograft model; therefore, further studies are needed to clarify this. Oxidative stress to the immature lung is a well-known risk factor for the development of BPD [32]. NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme complex responsible for production of superoxide anion (O22), which generates other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid [20]. Upon its activation, the cytoplasmic subunits p47phox, p67phox, p40phox and Rac translocate to membrane bound cytochrome [33]. The membrane translocation of the p47phox can thus be served as an in vivo indicator of NADPH oxidase activation in the lung tissue. In our previous study [8], we have observed the dose-dependent anti-oxidative effects of intratracheal MSCs transplantation. In the present study,Timing of MSCs Injection for Hyperoxic Lung InjuryFigure 6. p47phox, cytosolic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the P21 rat lung tissue. (A): Fluorescent microscopic observation of p47phox (green) localized in the lungs of the P21 rats and the nuclei labeled with DAPI (blue) (Scale bar; 25 mm). (B): Representative western blots (top) and densitometric histograms (bottom) in the cytosol (left) and membrane (right) fractions of P21 rat lung homogenates. NC, Normoxia control group; HC, hyperoxia control group; HT3, hyperoxia with stem cell transplantation group at P3; HT10, hyperoxia with stem cell treatment group at P10; HT3+10, hyperoxia with stem cell treatment group at P3 and P10. Data; mean6SEM. *P,0.05 compared to NC, # P,0.05 compared to HC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052419.gincreased expression of the p47phox protein was observed both in the cytosolic and membrane fraction in HC. Although significant attenuation of cytosolic expression of the p47phox was observed after MSCs transplantation, a decrease in membrane translocation of the p47phox was observed in both HT3 and HT3+10, but not in HT10. These findings suggest that MSCs transplantation at the early rather than late phase of inflammation will be the optimal timing for their best anti-oxidative effects. In our previous studies [7,8], we have shown that inflammatory responses mediated by neutrophils [4] and proinflammatory cytokines [5] play a pivotal role in the development of BPD [6], and that the protective effects of MSCs therapy against hyperoxiainduced lung injuries are mediated primarily by their antiinflammatory effects rather than by their regenerating capacity. In the present study, hyperoxia-induced increase in ED1 positive alveolar macrophages, lung myeloperoxidase activity and cytokines such as IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, TNF-a measured by ELISA, other inflammatory markers such as TIMP-1, CXCL7, RANTES, L-selectin and sICAM-1 measured by protein array were consistently attenuated by MSCs administration at both early (HT3) and combined early+ late (HT3+10), but not at the late (HT10) phase of inflammation. These findings suggest a full-blownhost inflammatory micro-environment might hinder the antiinflammatory effects of the transplanted MSCs. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism 12926553 of endogenous inflammatory factors on transplanted stem cells function. In our previous studi.

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