Indicated (A) P-body or (B) stress granule markers were grown for

Indicated (A) P-body or (B) stress granule markers were grown for 4 days in Tein E (apoE) gene to families with a higher risk of glucose-containing media and examined using confocal microscopy. Scale bar, 5 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052824.ggis2D dhh1D cells (Figure S1), possibly because the already low levels of translation in dhh1D 1379592 cells during glucose deprivation made it difficult to document small changes in translation efficiency. Nonetheless, the small but reproducible increase in polysomes detected in gis2D dhh1D cells compared to dhh1D cells during glucose deprivation (Figures 5E and 5F) suggests that Gis2 could contribute to translational repression of at least some mRNAs.We also examined whether Gis2 has a general role in mRNA decay. For these experiments, two mRNA reporters, PGK1pG and MFA2pG, each under control of the GAL1 promoter [50], were integrated into the genome of wild-type and gis2D cells at the CUP1 locus. These reporters have been widely used to measure mRNA half-lives, by first growing yeast in galactose media to allow expression of the reporters, then repressing transcription withGis2 and CNBP Are Components of RNP GranulesFigure 5. Polysome profiles following glucose deprivation of yeast cells. (A ) Wild-type and the indicated mutant strains were grown in glucose-containing media until early logarithmic phase, pelleted, and resuspended in glucose-containing media (left panels) or in media lacking glucose (right panels) and grown for an additional 10 minutes. Lysates were Title Loaded From File fractionated in 15?0 sucrose gradients and the positions of ribosomal subunits, monoribosomes and polyribosomes detected by monitoring OD254 during collection. (A) wild-type, (B) gis2D , (C) pat1D, (D) gis2Dpat1D, (E) dhh1D, (F) gis2Ddhh1D cells. To ensure reproducibility, each mutant was analyzed at least twice. (G) The P/M ratio was determined for wild-type, gis2D, dhh1D and gis2D dhh1D strains as described [63] following 10 minutes of glucose depletion. P/M ratios for wild-type and gis2D strains were determined from three biological replicates, while the P/M ratios for dhh1D and dhh1D gis2D strains were determined from four replicates. Asterisk, p,.05, two-tailed paired t-test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052824.gglucose-containing media [51]. Both reporters exhibited similar decay rates in wild-type and gis2D cells (Figures S2A and S2B). We also used a similar reporter to detect EDC1 mRNA, since decay of this mRNA is strongly impaired in dhh1D cells [52]. Decay of EDC1 mRNA was unaffected in gis2D cells (Figure S2C).Moreover, although EDC1 mRNA decay was slowed in dhh1D cells compared to wild-type cells, the decay rate in gis2D dhh1D cells was similar to that in dhh1D cells (Figure S2D). We conclude that Gis2 is not required for general mRNA decay, although weGis2 and CNBP Are Components of RNP Granulescannot exclude the possibility that it is involved in the degradation of a subset of mRNAs.Some CNBP Associates with Translating Ribosomes in Human CellsTo examine the extent to which human CNBP is functionally similar to Gis2, we determined whether CNBP associates with translation initiation factors and/or polysomes. Immunoprecipitations from human HeLa cells using antibodies to CNBP [53], followed by Western blotting of proteins in the immunoprecipitate, revealed that a small fraction of the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein I PABPC1 was associated with CNBP. The presence of PABPC1 in the immunoprecipitate was specific, as both eIF4G2 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not.Indicated (A) P-body or (B) stress granule markers were grown for 4 days in glucose-containing media and examined using confocal microscopy. Scale bar, 5 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052824.ggis2D dhh1D cells (Figure S1), possibly because the already low levels of translation in dhh1D 1379592 cells during glucose deprivation made it difficult to document small changes in translation efficiency. Nonetheless, the small but reproducible increase in polysomes detected in gis2D dhh1D cells compared to dhh1D cells during glucose deprivation (Figures 5E and 5F) suggests that Gis2 could contribute to translational repression of at least some mRNAs.We also examined whether Gis2 has a general role in mRNA decay. For these experiments, two mRNA reporters, PGK1pG and MFA2pG, each under control of the GAL1 promoter [50], were integrated into the genome of wild-type and gis2D cells at the CUP1 locus. These reporters have been widely used to measure mRNA half-lives, by first growing yeast in galactose media to allow expression of the reporters, then repressing transcription withGis2 and CNBP Are Components of RNP GranulesFigure 5. Polysome profiles following glucose deprivation of yeast cells. (A ) Wild-type and the indicated mutant strains were grown in glucose-containing media until early logarithmic phase, pelleted, and resuspended in glucose-containing media (left panels) or in media lacking glucose (right panels) and grown for an additional 10 minutes. Lysates were fractionated in 15?0 sucrose gradients and the positions of ribosomal subunits, monoribosomes and polyribosomes detected by monitoring OD254 during collection. (A) wild-type, (B) gis2D , (C) pat1D, (D) gis2Dpat1D, (E) dhh1D, (F) gis2Ddhh1D cells. To ensure reproducibility, each mutant was analyzed at least twice. (G) The P/M ratio was determined for wild-type, gis2D, dhh1D and gis2D dhh1D strains as described [63] following 10 minutes of glucose depletion. P/M ratios for wild-type and gis2D strains were determined from three biological replicates, while the P/M ratios for dhh1D and dhh1D gis2D strains were determined from four replicates. Asterisk, p,.05, two-tailed paired t-test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052824.gglucose-containing media [51]. Both reporters exhibited similar decay rates in wild-type and gis2D cells (Figures S2A and S2B). We also used a similar reporter to detect EDC1 mRNA, since decay of this mRNA is strongly impaired in dhh1D cells [52]. Decay of EDC1 mRNA was unaffected in gis2D cells (Figure S2C).Moreover, although EDC1 mRNA decay was slowed in dhh1D cells compared to wild-type cells, the decay rate in gis2D dhh1D cells was similar to that in dhh1D cells (Figure S2D). We conclude that Gis2 is not required for general mRNA decay, although weGis2 and CNBP Are Components of RNP Granulescannot exclude the possibility that it is involved in the degradation of a subset of mRNAs.Some CNBP Associates with Translating Ribosomes in Human CellsTo examine the extent to which human CNBP is functionally similar to Gis2, we determined whether CNBP associates with translation initiation factors and/or polysomes. Immunoprecipitations from human HeLa cells using antibodies to CNBP [53], followed by Western blotting of proteins in the immunoprecipitate, revealed that a small fraction of the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein I PABPC1 was associated with CNBP. The presence of PABPC1 in the immunoprecipitate was specific, as both eIF4G2 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not.

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