Le). The Tol-DC doses administered varied form from 104 to 107 cells. Nine

Le). The (��)-Hexaconazole web Tol-DC doses administered varied form from 104 to 107 cells. Nine studies adopted single-injection, and three used multiple injections. All GSK -3203591 cost untreated groups were taken as control groups, and only ten studies had negative control groups (Table 2). Outcomes. Prolonged graft survival was reported in 11 of 13 studies, and two reported rejection episodes. Similarly, 10 studies detected Tol-DC induced donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness against donor antigens by MLR, 6 detected Th1/Th2 differentiation, 4 detected Treg induction, but only one detected anti-graft cytotoxicity (Table 2).Data analysisAllogeneic pancreatic islet graft survival time was used to assess endpoint outcomes. Meta-analysis could not be used because of incomplete data in most studies. We displayed survival time of both experimental and control groups as x6SD in a forest map, as described previously [9]. Immune tolerance was defined when survival time exceeded 100 days, based on induction of donor specific T cell hyporesponsiveness (MLR), skewing of Th0 to Th2 (CK), induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and reduction of cytotoxicity against allografts (CTL). We dissected the effects of Tol-DC adoptive transfusion on islet allografts and evaluated potential survival mechanisms.Results Literature search and selection147 relevant studies were identified, consisting of 105 from Embase and 42 from PubMed. To our knowledge, there has not been a systematic review of the literature using similar criteria. We selected 13 studies according to the above inclusion criteria, which included adoptive mouse (9 articles) and rat (4 articles) islet transplantation models [10,13,14,15,16,19,20,21,22,11,12,17,18]. The detection rate in PubMed and Embase was 23.8 (10 articles) and 12.4 (13 articles), respectively (Figure 1).Quality of included studiesThe 13 studies included scores ranging from 4 to 9, and contained 11 studies ranked A [10,11,12,13,14,15,18,19,20,22], one ranked B [17], one ranked C [21] and none ranked DOutcomesimDC prolonged allografts survival. imDC prolonged islet allograft survival when incubated in a special bioreactor with continuous rotation in culture media, and even appeared to induceInfusion Tol-DC Prolongs Islet Allograft SurvivalTable 2. Characteristics of included studies.NO. StudyAnimal model(Mice/Rat)Tol-DC(Number) (total number)Controls C1 COutcomes O1 O2 O3 O4 ODC(R/D)Untreated Negative SUR A1 * (D)H-2 Stepkowsk(2006)bMLR CK /Treg CTL Y / R-DC(R)H-d(T)H-kBioreactorimDC(Balb/c) (5) Bioreactor-imDC (Balb/cStat42/2) (5)!.150d / .150dTotleMHC total mismatch: n = 1 (R)RT-1a (T)RT-1nMonotherapy: n = 0 Combination: n =R-DC:n = 1 D-DC:n =BOlakunle(2001)11 (D)RT-1uP5-BMDC(10`6,i.v.) (5) P5-BMDC+ALS (2*10`6,i.v.) (5) P5-BMDC(2*10`6,i.v.) (4) P5-BMDC+ALS(10`6,i.t.) (11) P5-thymic DC(5*10`6,i.v.) (4) P5-thymic DC+ALS (5*10`6,i.v.) (4)!q .200d q .200d q .200dY///R-DCBAli(2000)(D)RT-1u(R)RT-1a (D)RT-1l(T)RT-1n (T)RT-1nP5-DC+ALS(-) (5) P5-DC+ALS(0.5 ml) (5)!!q qY///R-DCBOluwole(1995)13 (R)RT-1uD-Ag+DC(R) (3) D-Ag+DC(D) (4)!!q -Y///R/D-DCTotleMHC total mismatch: n =b dMonotherapy: n = 3 Combination: n =R-DC:n = 3 D-DC:n =C1 C2 CYang(2008)2 Zhu(2008)(R)H-(D)H-CTLA-4Ig-DC(8) IL10-DC(8) (T)H-2k D2SC/1-CTLA4-Ig (10) D2SC/1-CTLA4-Ig (additional injection)! ! !! ! !q q q -Y Y YTH2 TH2 // 18325633 / // / // R-DC D-DC(R)H-2b(D)H-2d (D)H-2dO’Rourke(2000)4 (R)H-2bCLi(2010)//rAd-DCR3-DC rAd-GAD65/DCR3-DC!!q q///Y/TotleMHC total mismatch: n =b dMonotherapy: n = 4 Comb.Le). The Tol-DC doses administered varied form from 104 to 107 cells. Nine studies adopted single-injection, and three used multiple injections. All untreated groups were taken as control groups, and only ten studies had negative control groups (Table 2). Outcomes. Prolonged graft survival was reported in 11 of 13 studies, and two reported rejection episodes. Similarly, 10 studies detected Tol-DC induced donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness against donor antigens by MLR, 6 detected Th1/Th2 differentiation, 4 detected Treg induction, but only one detected anti-graft cytotoxicity (Table 2).Data analysisAllogeneic pancreatic islet graft survival time was used to assess endpoint outcomes. Meta-analysis could not be used because of incomplete data in most studies. We displayed survival time of both experimental and control groups as x6SD in a forest map, as described previously [9]. Immune tolerance was defined when survival time exceeded 100 days, based on induction of donor specific T cell hyporesponsiveness (MLR), skewing of Th0 to Th2 (CK), induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and reduction of cytotoxicity against allografts (CTL). We dissected the effects of Tol-DC adoptive transfusion on islet allografts and evaluated potential survival mechanisms.Results Literature search and selection147 relevant studies were identified, consisting of 105 from Embase and 42 from PubMed. To our knowledge, there has not been a systematic review of the literature using similar criteria. We selected 13 studies according to the above inclusion criteria, which included adoptive mouse (9 articles) and rat (4 articles) islet transplantation models [10,13,14,15,16,19,20,21,22,11,12,17,18]. The detection rate in PubMed and Embase was 23.8 (10 articles) and 12.4 (13 articles), respectively (Figure 1).Quality of included studiesThe 13 studies included scores ranging from 4 to 9, and contained 11 studies ranked A [10,11,12,13,14,15,18,19,20,22], one ranked B [17], one ranked C [21] and none ranked DOutcomesimDC prolonged allografts survival. imDC prolonged islet allograft survival when incubated in a special bioreactor with continuous rotation in culture media, and even appeared to induceInfusion Tol-DC Prolongs Islet Allograft SurvivalTable 2. Characteristics of included studies.NO. StudyAnimal model(Mice/Rat)Tol-DC(Number) (total number)Controls C1 COutcomes O1 O2 O3 O4 ODC(R/D)Untreated Negative SUR A1 * (D)H-2 Stepkowsk(2006)bMLR CK /Treg CTL Y / R-DC(R)H-d(T)H-kBioreactorimDC(Balb/c) (5) Bioreactor-imDC (Balb/cStat42/2) (5)!.150d / .150dTotleMHC total mismatch: n = 1 (R)RT-1a (T)RT-1nMonotherapy: n = 0 Combination: n =R-DC:n = 1 D-DC:n =BOlakunle(2001)11 (D)RT-1uP5-BMDC(10`6,i.v.) (5) P5-BMDC+ALS (2*10`6,i.v.) (5) P5-BMDC(2*10`6,i.v.) (4) P5-BMDC+ALS(10`6,i.t.) (11) P5-thymic DC(5*10`6,i.v.) (4) P5-thymic DC+ALS (5*10`6,i.v.) (4)!q .200d q .200d q .200dY///R-DCBAli(2000)(D)RT-1u(R)RT-1a (D)RT-1l(T)RT-1n (T)RT-1nP5-DC+ALS(-) (5) P5-DC+ALS(0.5 ml) (5)!!q qY///R-DCBOluwole(1995)13 (R)RT-1uD-Ag+DC(R) (3) D-Ag+DC(D) (4)!!q -Y///R/D-DCTotleMHC total mismatch: n =b dMonotherapy: n = 3 Combination: n =R-DC:n = 3 D-DC:n =C1 C2 CYang(2008)2 Zhu(2008)(R)H-(D)H-CTLA-4Ig-DC(8) IL10-DC(8) (T)H-2k D2SC/1-CTLA4-Ig (10) D2SC/1-CTLA4-Ig (additional injection)! ! !! ! !q q q -Y Y YTH2 TH2 // 18325633 / // / // R-DC D-DC(R)H-2b(D)H-2d (D)H-2dO’Rourke(2000)4 (R)H-2bCLi(2010)//rAd-DCR3-DC rAd-GAD65/DCR3-DC!!q q///Y/TotleMHC total mismatch: n =b dMonotherapy: n = 4 Comb.

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