Asmids that are circular, although linear forms are found in some

Asmids that are circular, although linear forms are found in some cases [9]. In industrial microbiology, 16S rRNA gene copies can be reported as a means of assessing the microbial abundance in a given sample [10], with the caveat that 16S rRNA gene numbers can vary by a Etrasimod site log-fold per genome between different species [11]; so if this inherent variation is further amplified by as much as a log-fold due to overestimation by a circular standard, this could have important ramifications for the quantification of microbes of interest in many different industrial and medical settings. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the feasibility of using a circular plasmid standard purified from transformed bacterial cells with no further preparation for 16S rRNA gene copy number estimates in bacterial and archaeal systems. We hypothesized that circular plasmids would yield similar gene estimates as their linearized counterparts and could therefore be used in lieu of, with the major advantage of minimal standard preparation for continual qPCR analyses. To test this hypothesis, gene estimates based on two circular plasmid standards (supercoiled and nicked circles) were compared to those of two linear standards, a SpeI-digested plasmid and a PCR amplicon, using two sets of taxa-specific 16S rRNA gene primers. One set of primers targeted the bacterial 16S rRNA gene while the other set targeted the archaeal 16S rRNA gene. The ratio of estimated to predicted 16S rRNA gene copies were analyzed using sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes and results presented here demonstrated that circular plasmids did not lead to gross overestimates in 16S rRNA gene copies. Therefore, propagated plasmids suffice for prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene estimates and require less preparation than linearized or PCR-amplicon DNA for use as qPCR standards.Methods Genomic DNA PreparationsThree bacterial and two archaeal strains, whose genomes had been completely sequenced, were HA-1077 web chosen for this study. A freezedried culture of the Thermovirga lienii type strain Cas60314 (DSM 17291/ATCC BAA-1197) was purchased from the Leibniz Institute-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) and cultured according to manufacturer’s instructions. Genomic DNA was extracted from T. lienii using the PowerSoilH DNA isolation kit (MO BIO Laboratories Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to manufacturer’s instructions and eluted into RT-PCR grade water (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Lyophilized genomic DNA samples from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris strain Hildenborough (NCIB 8303/ATCC 29579), Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1-LAC (ATCC 47085), Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain VC16 (DSM 4304/ATCC 49203), and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii strain JAL-1 (DSM 2661/ATCC 43067) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The lyophilized samples were reconstituted with RT-PCR grade water (Life Technologies) and DNA concentrations were measured in triplicate using a QubitH 2.0 fluorometer (Life Technologies) with dsDNA BR Regents according to manufacturer’s instructions. Genomic DNA samples were stored at 220uC until use.Figure 1. Preparation of 16S rRNA gene standards. Representative archaeal (A. fulgidus) and bacterial (T. lienii) (a) plasmids: Marker = 1 kb DNA ladder, S = freshly isolated supercoiled plasmid, L = linearized plasmid (SpeI-digested), and N = nicked 12926553 circular plasmid (Nb.BtsI-digested) and (b) PCR amplicons: Marker = low range DNA ladder. doi.Asmids that are circular, although linear forms are found in some cases [9]. In industrial microbiology, 16S rRNA gene copies can be reported as a means of assessing the microbial abundance in a given sample [10], with the caveat that 16S rRNA gene numbers can vary by a log-fold per genome between different species [11]; so if this inherent variation is further amplified by as much as a log-fold due to overestimation by a circular standard, this could have important ramifications for the quantification of microbes of interest in many different industrial and medical settings. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the feasibility of using a circular plasmid standard purified from transformed bacterial cells with no further preparation for 16S rRNA gene copy number estimates in bacterial and archaeal systems. We hypothesized that circular plasmids would yield similar gene estimates as their linearized counterparts and could therefore be used in lieu of, with the major advantage of minimal standard preparation for continual qPCR analyses. To test this hypothesis, gene estimates based on two circular plasmid standards (supercoiled and nicked circles) were compared to those of two linear standards, a SpeI-digested plasmid and a PCR amplicon, using two sets of taxa-specific 16S rRNA gene primers. One set of primers targeted the bacterial 16S rRNA gene while the other set targeted the archaeal 16S rRNA gene. The ratio of estimated to predicted 16S rRNA gene copies were analyzed using sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes and results presented here demonstrated that circular plasmids did not lead to gross overestimates in 16S rRNA gene copies. Therefore, propagated plasmids suffice for prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene estimates and require less preparation than linearized or PCR-amplicon DNA for use as qPCR standards.Methods Genomic DNA PreparationsThree bacterial and two archaeal strains, whose genomes had been completely sequenced, were chosen for this study. A freezedried culture of the Thermovirga lienii type strain Cas60314 (DSM 17291/ATCC BAA-1197) was purchased from the Leibniz Institute-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) and cultured according to manufacturer’s instructions. Genomic DNA was extracted from T. lienii using the PowerSoilH DNA isolation kit (MO BIO Laboratories Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to manufacturer’s instructions and eluted into RT-PCR grade water (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Lyophilized genomic DNA samples from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris strain Hildenborough (NCIB 8303/ATCC 29579), Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1-LAC (ATCC 47085), Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain VC16 (DSM 4304/ATCC 49203), and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii strain JAL-1 (DSM 2661/ATCC 43067) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The lyophilized samples were reconstituted with RT-PCR grade water (Life Technologies) and DNA concentrations were measured in triplicate using a QubitH 2.0 fluorometer (Life Technologies) with dsDNA BR Regents according to manufacturer’s instructions. Genomic DNA samples were stored at 220uC until use.Figure 1. Preparation of 16S rRNA gene standards. Representative archaeal (A. fulgidus) and bacterial (T. lienii) (a) plasmids: Marker = 1 kb DNA ladder, S = freshly isolated supercoiled plasmid, L = linearized plasmid (SpeI-digested), and N = nicked 12926553 circular plasmid (Nb.BtsI-digested) and (b) PCR amplicons: Marker = low range DNA ladder. doi.

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