Arly and middle adolescents (Henry et al., 2011) and none have assessed

Arly and middle adolescents (Henry et al., 2011) and none have assessed the accuracy of injunctive norms during this developmental period. Moreover, considering the low rates of use during this developmental period, we were limited toAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAlcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPagelooking at the prevalence of adolescent drinking rather than the frequency of adolescent use. Future work would benefit from extending the current study to other developmental periods, such as young adults and college students, to test if our moderational findings are replicated at older ages and when using frequency and quantity outcomes. AZD4547 chemical information Second, social norms are necessarily keyed to a referent group, and in our study these included friends and close friends. There is a large literature demonstrating that as referents become more distal, there is a weaker association between norms and drinking behaviors (Collins and Oxaliplatin biological activity Spelman, 2013; Neighbors et al., 2008). Hence, our moderational findings may not generalize to social norms assessed using other more distal referents (e.g., someone your age and gender). Third, we did not measure the actual alcohol use and social goals of our participants’ peers in the current study. Selection effects have been well established in the adolescent drinking literature and recent work has suggested that adolescents may select into peer groups with similar social goals (Burk et al., 2012; Ojanen et al., 2013). We can’t determine selection effects with our data. Identifying the role of selection effects in our moderational model using social network data would be an important direction for future research. Despite these limitations, the current study makes an important contribution to the literature by elucidating specific moderating mechanisms through which descriptive and injunctive norms influence alcohol use. This work adds to limited number of studies assessing social norms from a developmental perspective and adds to body of work looking to understand for whom and when social norms impact behavior. Normative feedback interventions, which provide adolescents with accurate information regarding the drinking behaviors of their peers, have been widely used to combat adolescent and college student drinking (Perkins, 2002; Walters and Neighbors, 2005). Despite their widespread implementation, these interventions have had mixed efficacy (Schultz et al., 2007). Results from the current study suggest that normative feedback interventions may benefit from being tailored based on an individual’s grade and social goals. For instance, personalized normative feedback for older adolescents (9th graders) with high agentic goals may be more successful if they target descriptive drinking norms, whereas, personalized normative feedback for older adolescents (9th graders) with high communal goals may be more successful if they target injunctive drinking norms.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA019631) awarded to Dr. Craig R. Colder.
Estrogens are a family of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol that include estrone, estriol, and estradiol. Estradiol is the most abundant sex steroid in pre-menopausal woman and has the highest estrogenic activity. Estradiol is produced mainly in the ovaries and to.Arly and middle adolescents (Henry et al., 2011) and none have assessed the accuracy of injunctive norms during this developmental period. Moreover, considering the low rates of use during this developmental period, we were limited toAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAlcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPagelooking at the prevalence of adolescent drinking rather than the frequency of adolescent use. Future work would benefit from extending the current study to other developmental periods, such as young adults and college students, to test if our moderational findings are replicated at older ages and when using frequency and quantity outcomes. Second, social norms are necessarily keyed to a referent group, and in our study these included friends and close friends. There is a large literature demonstrating that as referents become more distal, there is a weaker association between norms and drinking behaviors (Collins and Spelman, 2013; Neighbors et al., 2008). Hence, our moderational findings may not generalize to social norms assessed using other more distal referents (e.g., someone your age and gender). Third, we did not measure the actual alcohol use and social goals of our participants’ peers in the current study. Selection effects have been well established in the adolescent drinking literature and recent work has suggested that adolescents may select into peer groups with similar social goals (Burk et al., 2012; Ojanen et al., 2013). We can’t determine selection effects with our data. Identifying the role of selection effects in our moderational model using social network data would be an important direction for future research. Despite these limitations, the current study makes an important contribution to the literature by elucidating specific moderating mechanisms through which descriptive and injunctive norms influence alcohol use. This work adds to limited number of studies assessing social norms from a developmental perspective and adds to body of work looking to understand for whom and when social norms impact behavior. Normative feedback interventions, which provide adolescents with accurate information regarding the drinking behaviors of their peers, have been widely used to combat adolescent and college student drinking (Perkins, 2002; Walters and Neighbors, 2005). Despite their widespread implementation, these interventions have had mixed efficacy (Schultz et al., 2007). Results from the current study suggest that normative feedback interventions may benefit from being tailored based on an individual’s grade and social goals. For instance, personalized normative feedback for older adolescents (9th graders) with high agentic goals may be more successful if they target descriptive drinking norms, whereas, personalized normative feedback for older adolescents (9th graders) with high communal goals may be more successful if they target injunctive drinking norms.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA019631) awarded to Dr. Craig R. Colder.
Estrogens are a family of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol that include estrone, estriol, and estradiol. Estradiol is the most abundant sex steroid in pre-menopausal woman and has the highest estrogenic activity. Estradiol is produced mainly in the ovaries and to.

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