Thin 2 hrs of adding bacteria and remained elevated for at least

Thin 2 hrs of adding bacteria and remained elevated for at least 24 hrs (Fig. 1). These data indicate that factors within macrophages induce ibpAB expression in E. coli relatively soon after phagocytosis.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.order ICG-001 0120249 March 23,4 /IbpAB Protect Commensal E. coli against ROSFig 1. Kinetics of E. coli ibpAB upregulation ABT-737 site during phagocytosis by macrophages. J774 macrophages (A) or BMDMs (B) were incubated with E. coli NC101. At the indicated times, ibpA and ibpB mRNA in gentamicin-resistant (i.e. intracellular) E. coli was quantified by real-time PCR. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = at least 3 wells/timepoint, *p<0.05 vs. time 0). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gROS mediate ibpAB expression in E. coli in cultures and macrophagesNext, we explored potential factors in macrophages that might upregulate E. coli ibpAB. To establish whether the acidic environment that exists in the macrophage phagolysosome induces E. coli ibpAB, we measured ibpAB expression in E. coli within J774 macrophages that had been treated with bafilomycin-A1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H+-ATPase that acidifies the phagolysosome. Inhibition of vacuolar acidification did not decrease E. coli ibpAB induction within macrophages, but rather unexpectedly increased expression suggesting that the acidic environment of the phagolysosome is not responsible for upregulation of E. coli ibpAB in macrophages (Fig. 2A). In addition to low pH, the phagolyosome also contains increased concentrations of ROS and RNS. Since ibpAB have been shown to protect cultured E. coli from killing by hydrogen peroxide[16], we predicted that E. coli upregulate ibpAB in response to phagolysosomal ROS or RNS. To test this, we incubated BMDMs from gp91phox-/- mice that have an impaired oxidative burst, Inos-/- mice that are defective in nitric oxide production, and wild-type (wt) mice with E. coli NC101 and measured ibpAB mRNA in intracellular E. coli. Interestingly, ibpAB expression in E. coli within Inos-/- BMDMs was increased relative to wt BMDMs, whereas ibpAB expression in gp91phox-/- BMDMs was decreased compared with wt BMDMs (Fig. 2B-E). These data suggest that ROS, but not RNS, within BMDMs are partially responsible for the induction of ibpAB in intra-macrophage E. coli.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,5 /IbpAB Protect Commensal E. coli against ROSFig 2. Upregulation of ibpAB in intracellular E. coli is partially-dependent on reactive oxygen species. A) Intracellular E. coli ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in J774 macrophages that were incubated with E. coli NC101 for up to 3 hrs in the presence or absence of the vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin-A1. B-E) Intracellular E. coli ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in BMDMs from wt, Inos-/- (B and C) or gp91phox-/- (D and E) mice that were incubated with E. coli NC101for up to 6 hrs. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = at least 3 wells/timepoint, *p<0.05 vs. media control or wt BMDMs). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gTo confirm that ROS enhance ibpAB expression in commensal E. coli, we treated mid-log phase E. coli NC101 with the superoxide generator, paraquat, for the indicated times and measured ibpAB expression. We detected a dose-dependent increase in ibpAB expression five minutes after addition of paraquat, but the degree of upregulation diminished substantially by ten minutes (Fig. 3A and B). To confirm that bacteria are sensing the presence of ROS.Thin 2 hrs of adding bacteria and remained elevated for at least 24 hrs (Fig. 1). These data indicate that factors within macrophages induce ibpAB expression in E. coli relatively soon after phagocytosis.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,4 /IbpAB Protect Commensal E. coli against ROSFig 1. Kinetics of E. coli ibpAB upregulation during phagocytosis by macrophages. J774 macrophages (A) or BMDMs (B) were incubated with E. coli NC101. At the indicated times, ibpA and ibpB mRNA in gentamicin-resistant (i.e. intracellular) E. coli was quantified by real-time PCR. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = at least 3 wells/timepoint, *p<0.05 vs. time 0). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gROS mediate ibpAB expression in E. coli in cultures and macrophagesNext, we explored potential factors in macrophages that might upregulate E. coli ibpAB. To establish whether the acidic environment that exists in the macrophage phagolysosome induces E. coli ibpAB, we measured ibpAB expression in E. coli within J774 macrophages that had been treated with bafilomycin-A1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H+-ATPase that acidifies the phagolysosome. Inhibition of vacuolar acidification did not decrease E. coli ibpAB induction within macrophages, but rather unexpectedly increased expression suggesting that the acidic environment of the phagolysosome is not responsible for upregulation of E. coli ibpAB in macrophages (Fig. 2A). In addition to low pH, the phagolyosome also contains increased concentrations of ROS and RNS. Since ibpAB have been shown to protect cultured E. coli from killing by hydrogen peroxide[16], we predicted that E. coli upregulate ibpAB in response to phagolysosomal ROS or RNS. To test this, we incubated BMDMs from gp91phox-/- mice that have an impaired oxidative burst, Inos-/- mice that are defective in nitric oxide production, and wild-type (wt) mice with E. coli NC101 and measured ibpAB mRNA in intracellular E. coli. Interestingly, ibpAB expression in E. coli within Inos-/- BMDMs was increased relative to wt BMDMs, whereas ibpAB expression in gp91phox-/- BMDMs was decreased compared with wt BMDMs (Fig. 2B-E). These data suggest that ROS, but not RNS, within BMDMs are partially responsible for the induction of ibpAB in intra-macrophage E. coli.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,5 /IbpAB Protect Commensal E. coli against ROSFig 2. Upregulation of ibpAB in intracellular E. coli is partially-dependent on reactive oxygen species. A) Intracellular E. coli ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in J774 macrophages that were incubated with E. coli NC101 for up to 3 hrs in the presence or absence of the vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin-A1. B-E) Intracellular E. coli ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in BMDMs from wt, Inos-/- (B and C) or gp91phox-/- (D and E) mice that were incubated with E. coli NC101for up to 6 hrs. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = at least 3 wells/timepoint, *p<0.05 vs. media control or wt BMDMs). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gTo confirm that ROS enhance ibpAB expression in commensal E. coli, we treated mid-log phase E. coli NC101 with the superoxide generator, paraquat, for the indicated times and measured ibpAB expression. We detected a dose-dependent increase in ibpAB expression five minutes after addition of paraquat, but the degree of upregulation diminished substantially by ten minutes (Fig. 3A and B). To confirm that bacteria are sensing the presence of ROS.

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