Ditional self-report measure of dependency. Using principal components analysis, Hirschfeld and

Ditional self-report measure of dependency. Using principal components analysis, Hirschfeld and colleagues (1977) found that the IDI items loaded onto three subscales: Emotional reliance on another person (ER); Lack of social self-confidence (LS); and Assertion of autonomy (AA). The present study scored the IDI by summing the ER and LS scores, omitting responses to the AA subscale due to an uneven pattern of missing data in the present sample for this scale. We believe that theJ Pers Assess. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 February 21.Cogswell et al.Pagescale’s content has not been altered meaningfully as the present approach to scoring was highly correlated with the more traditional scoring approach (r = .93). The three subscales have demonstrated acceptable reliability, with split-half correlations in three samples ranging between .72 and .91 (Hirschfeld et al., 1977), and acceptable retest reliability over intervals ranging from 16 to 84 weeks (Bornstein, 1997; Bornstein et al., 1994). The validity of the IDI has been established in a psychiatric population (Hirschfeld et al., 1977), and the IDI has been associated with other self-report and behavioral measures of dependency (Hirschfeld, Klerman, Clayton, Keller, 1983), and has predicted symptoms of dependent personality disorder (Bornstein, 1994). Inventory to Diagnose Depression – Lifetime version (IDD-L; Zimmerman Coryell, 1987)–The IDD-L consists of 22 self-report items in a five-point Likert-type format, used in this study to assess major depressive episodes according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Participants were asked to respond to each question as it pertains to the week they recall feeling the most depressed over the course of their lifetimes. Each question taps the degree to which participants experienced a particular symptom of a major depressive episode. Relative to diagnoses derived from standardized interviews in a community-based adult sample, the IDD-L’s sensitivity was 74 , specificity was 93 , and kappa was .60 (Zimmerman Coryell, 1987). Additionally, the IDD-L has demonstrated a high level of internal consistency in research with a college student sample ( = .92; Roberts Kassel, 1997). Dependent variables used in the present study included the number of DSM-IV criterion A depressive symptoms (depressed mood, hopelessness, decreased interest/pleasure) endorsed, number of criterion B symptoms (e.g., fatigue, guilt, worthlessness, suicidality, concentration, appetite, sleep) endorsed, and the categorical presence or absence of past major depressive episodes. Beck Depression Inventory – II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, Brown, 1996)–The BDI-II is a 21-item, 4-point Likert-type scale, which was used to assess participants’ DS5565MedChemExpress DS5565 levels of depressive symptoms experienced over the past two weeks. The BDI-II has shown strong internal consistency in both student (Beck et al., 1996; Steer Clark, 1997) and clinical samples (Beck et al., 1996), with alphas ranging from .89 to .92. The BDI-II has also demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability, with a one-week coefficient of .93 (Beck et al., 1996). Numerous studies have established the validity and reliability of the Thonzonium (bromide) supplier original BDI (see Beck, Steer, Garbin, 1988). Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991)–The PAI is designed to assess adult personality and psychopathology, and is comprised of 22 scale.Ditional self-report measure of dependency. Using principal components analysis, Hirschfeld and colleagues (1977) found that the IDI items loaded onto three subscales: Emotional reliance on another person (ER); Lack of social self-confidence (LS); and Assertion of autonomy (AA). The present study scored the IDI by summing the ER and LS scores, omitting responses to the AA subscale due to an uneven pattern of missing data in the present sample for this scale. We believe that theJ Pers Assess. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 February 21.Cogswell et al.Pagescale’s content has not been altered meaningfully as the present approach to scoring was highly correlated with the more traditional scoring approach (r = .93). The three subscales have demonstrated acceptable reliability, with split-half correlations in three samples ranging between .72 and .91 (Hirschfeld et al., 1977), and acceptable retest reliability over intervals ranging from 16 to 84 weeks (Bornstein, 1997; Bornstein et al., 1994). The validity of the IDI has been established in a psychiatric population (Hirschfeld et al., 1977), and the IDI has been associated with other self-report and behavioral measures of dependency (Hirschfeld, Klerman, Clayton, Keller, 1983), and has predicted symptoms of dependent personality disorder (Bornstein, 1994). Inventory to Diagnose Depression – Lifetime version (IDD-L; Zimmerman Coryell, 1987)–The IDD-L consists of 22 self-report items in a five-point Likert-type format, used in this study to assess major depressive episodes according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Participants were asked to respond to each question as it pertains to the week they recall feeling the most depressed over the course of their lifetimes. Each question taps the degree to which participants experienced a particular symptom of a major depressive episode. Relative to diagnoses derived from standardized interviews in a community-based adult sample, the IDD-L’s sensitivity was 74 , specificity was 93 , and kappa was .60 (Zimmerman Coryell, 1987). Additionally, the IDD-L has demonstrated a high level of internal consistency in research with a college student sample ( = .92; Roberts Kassel, 1997). Dependent variables used in the present study included the number of DSM-IV criterion A depressive symptoms (depressed mood, hopelessness, decreased interest/pleasure) endorsed, number of criterion B symptoms (e.g., fatigue, guilt, worthlessness, suicidality, concentration, appetite, sleep) endorsed, and the categorical presence or absence of past major depressive episodes. Beck Depression Inventory – II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, Brown, 1996)–The BDI-II is a 21-item, 4-point Likert-type scale, which was used to assess participants’ levels of depressive symptoms experienced over the past two weeks. The BDI-II has shown strong internal consistency in both student (Beck et al., 1996; Steer Clark, 1997) and clinical samples (Beck et al., 1996), with alphas ranging from .89 to .92. The BDI-II has also demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability, with a one-week coefficient of .93 (Beck et al., 1996). Numerous studies have established the validity and reliability of the original BDI (see Beck, Steer, Garbin, 1988). Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991)–The PAI is designed to assess adult personality and psychopathology, and is comprised of 22 scale.

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