Rradiation. Surprisingly, TERF2 (otherwise known as TRF2) and the TERF2-interacting

Rradiation. Surprisingly, TERF2 (otherwise known as TRF2) and the TERF2-interacting protein TERF2IP (otherwise known as RAP1) were also recruited upon UV irradiation. Although predominantly studied as telomeric proteins, TERF2 and TERF2IP have previously been implicated in a general response to DNA doublestrand breaks (Bradshaw et al., 2005; Williams et al., 2007), but a connection to the UV damage response has not been reported. Several other factors, such as PHF3, SETD2, PCF11, CDK9, SCAF4/SCAF8, the CTD phosphatase regulator and human homolog of yeast Rtt103, RPRD1B (Morales et al., 2014; Ni et al., 2014), as well as TCEB3/Elongin A1, were markedly recruited to CSB after UV irradiation as well (Table S1). In the cases where it was tested, IP-western experiments confirmed these results (Figure 2B). RNAPII Interactome We similarly examined the changes in the RNAPII interactome upon UV irradiation (Figure 2C; Table S3). RNAPII is ubiquitylated and degraded upon DNA damage, so for this ICG-001 manufacturer screen we only cultured cells in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132. All RNAPII interactors previously detected by this approach in the absence of DNA damage (Aygun et al., 2008) were detected, attesting to the reproducibility of the technique. More than 70 proteins quantified in the RNAPII IP became preferentially associated with the polymerase after DNA damage. The well-known UV-induced interaction between RNAPII and CSB that takes place at the site of DNA damage was detected, validating the screen. As additional validations, the RPA complexand RNF168–a ubiquitin ligase involved in amplifying ubiquitin signals at sites of DNA damage (Doil et al., 2009; Marteijn et al., 2009)–were also detected. Potential components of the damage response were also uncovered. For example, the Cohesin complex interacted much more with RNAPII upon DNA damage. Cohesin has multiple functions (Dorsett and Merkenschlager, 2013), including a role in the response to UV damage in yeast (Nagao et al., 2004). The amount of Cohesin in the RNAPII IP, as measured by the intensity-based absolute quantification (iBAQ) value (reflecting absolute protein abundance) ?(Schwanhausser et al., 2011), was much larger than that of RPA or CSB, for example, suggesting that Cohesin association with RNAPII increases widely; i.e., that it is not confined to actual sites of DNA damage. Several factors connected to transcript elongation, such as the RNAPII CTD-kinase CDK9, the histone H3-K36me3 methyltransferase SETD2, the PAF complex, the helicase RECQL5, and the CTD-binding proteins SCAF4 and SCAF8 were also identified as UV-induced RNAPII interactors. We note that it remains unknown how damage-stalled RNAPII is initially buy QVD-OPH recognized. Among proteins with a TFIIS-like RNAPIIbinding domain (TFS2M), TCEA1 and TCEA2 (encoding TFIIS), PHF3, and DIDO1 were detected as RNAPII interactors, but only PHF3 was recruited in response to DNA damage. The PHRF1 protein was also recruited; it contains a PHD domain, which binds methylated histone H3K36, possibly put in place by the co-recruited SETD2 protein. We also note that several proteins were lost from RNAPII upon DNA damage (Figure 2C; Table S3). For example, interactions with transcription initiation factors such as TFIIF (GTF2F), the oncoprotein MYC, mRNA capping protein CMTR1, and termination factor XRN2 were markedly reduced. Although further mechanistic studies will be required, these changes might help explain the DNA-damage-induced, global trans.Rradiation. Surprisingly, TERF2 (otherwise known as TRF2) and the TERF2-interacting protein TERF2IP (otherwise known as RAP1) were also recruited upon UV irradiation. Although predominantly studied as telomeric proteins, TERF2 and TERF2IP have previously been implicated in a general response to DNA doublestrand breaks (Bradshaw et al., 2005; Williams et al., 2007), but a connection to the UV damage response has not been reported. Several other factors, such as PHF3, SETD2, PCF11, CDK9, SCAF4/SCAF8, the CTD phosphatase regulator and human homolog of yeast Rtt103, RPRD1B (Morales et al., 2014; Ni et al., 2014), as well as TCEB3/Elongin A1, were markedly recruited to CSB after UV irradiation as well (Table S1). In the cases where it was tested, IP-western experiments confirmed these results (Figure 2B). RNAPII Interactome We similarly examined the changes in the RNAPII interactome upon UV irradiation (Figure 2C; Table S3). RNAPII is ubiquitylated and degraded upon DNA damage, so for this screen we only cultured cells in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132. All RNAPII interactors previously detected by this approach in the absence of DNA damage (Aygun et al., 2008) were detected, attesting to the reproducibility of the technique. More than 70 proteins quantified in the RNAPII IP became preferentially associated with the polymerase after DNA damage. The well-known UV-induced interaction between RNAPII and CSB that takes place at the site of DNA damage was detected, validating the screen. As additional validations, the RPA complexand RNF168–a ubiquitin ligase involved in amplifying ubiquitin signals at sites of DNA damage (Doil et al., 2009; Marteijn et al., 2009)–were also detected. Potential components of the damage response were also uncovered. For example, the Cohesin complex interacted much more with RNAPII upon DNA damage. Cohesin has multiple functions (Dorsett and Merkenschlager, 2013), including a role in the response to UV damage in yeast (Nagao et al., 2004). The amount of Cohesin in the RNAPII IP, as measured by the intensity-based absolute quantification (iBAQ) value (reflecting absolute protein abundance) ?(Schwanhausser et al., 2011), was much larger than that of RPA or CSB, for example, suggesting that Cohesin association with RNAPII increases widely; i.e., that it is not confined to actual sites of DNA damage. Several factors connected to transcript elongation, such as the RNAPII CTD-kinase CDK9, the histone H3-K36me3 methyltransferase SETD2, the PAF complex, the helicase RECQL5, and the CTD-binding proteins SCAF4 and SCAF8 were also identified as UV-induced RNAPII interactors. We note that it remains unknown how damage-stalled RNAPII is initially recognized. Among proteins with a TFIIS-like RNAPIIbinding domain (TFS2M), TCEA1 and TCEA2 (encoding TFIIS), PHF3, and DIDO1 were detected as RNAPII interactors, but only PHF3 was recruited in response to DNA damage. The PHRF1 protein was also recruited; it contains a PHD domain, which binds methylated histone H3K36, possibly put in place by the co-recruited SETD2 protein. We also note that several proteins were lost from RNAPII upon DNA damage (Figure 2C; Table S3). For example, interactions with transcription initiation factors such as TFIIF (GTF2F), the oncoprotein MYC, mRNA capping protein CMTR1, and termination factor XRN2 were markedly reduced. Although further mechanistic studies will be required, these changes might help explain the DNA-damage-induced, global trans.

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