G post-menopausal women [59]. Given the large range in polyphenols present in

G post-menopausal women [59]. Given the large range in polyphenols present in the flavonol sub-group, definitive recommendations are difficult; however, it is safe to assume a diet high in beans and legumes and a range of Tyrphostin AG 490 chemical information flavonols including onions, apples, citrus, tea, and broccoli are likely to be protective. 3.4.3. Isoflavones Estrogen is believed to play a role in breast cancer development and progression, and any nutritional intervention that blocks the production or reduces the hormone action is likely to beNutrients 2016, 8,7 ofeffective in improving clinical outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Soy food consumption has been attributed to protection against breast cancer, primarily because of the soybean isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein), which are natural estrogen receptor modulators. In vitro studies show that genistein inhibits the AZD0156 side effects growth of breast cancer cells, including hormone-dependent and independent cell types at higher concentrations (10?0 ol/L), while stimulating growth at lower concentrations (<10 ol/L) [61]. Whilst the structure of soy isoflavones mimics estrogen, the majority of human research fails to detect any clinically relevant estrogenic activity, as determined by estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin [62]. In one of the key human intervention studies on soy protein, results were stratified by the amount of soy consumed and showed a dose-response relationship between decreasing risk of breast cancer with an increased soy food intake, translating to a 16 risk reduction per 10 mg of daily isoflavone consumed [63]. However, concerns remain regarding optimal dose of soy foods to ensure improved survival in breast cancer sufferers, and further clinical trials are needed. Soybeans contain a number of anticarcinogens, suggesting that consumption may protect against breast cancer, with non-fermented products such as tofu and soymilk showing more promise. Unfortunately, clinical outcomes in animal and human epidemiological studies are varied, with 65 of studies reporting no effect or slightly protective against breast cancer risk. A recent review demonstrated the protective effect soy consumption has on breast cancer development, recurrence, and mortality [62]. At this stage, soy phytoestrogens require further research [64]. The protective association of soy food appears more pronounced in postmenopausal women. However, the reduced risk of recurrence results should be interpreted with caution given the modest effect and wide confidence intervals for most studies and the lack of dose response relationship in one positive study. Both the breast cancer treatment drug Tamoxifen and dietary phytoestrogens bind estrogen receptors, and many have theorised that soy consumption will reduce drug efficacy. In a study on investigating the association of soy food consumption and survival in breast cancer sufferers, women in the highest soy food intake groups had the lowest mortality and recurrence rate compared with women in the lowest intake group, regardless of tamoxifen use. Among women whose soy intake was in the highest quartile, tamoxifen did not confer additional health benefits [65]. Based on this limited epidemiological data, it follows that moderate soy protein consumption (5?0 g/day) in combination with Tamoxifen use represents the optimal treatment combination for relevant breast cancer patients. Within nutrition science, the critical concept of food synergy recognises that nutrients ex.G post-menopausal women [59]. Given the large range in polyphenols present in the flavonol sub-group, definitive recommendations are difficult; however, it is safe to assume a diet high in beans and legumes and a range of flavonols including onions, apples, citrus, tea, and broccoli are likely to be protective. 3.4.3. Isoflavones Estrogen is believed to play a role in breast cancer development and progression, and any nutritional intervention that blocks the production or reduces the hormone action is likely to beNutrients 2016, 8,7 ofeffective in improving clinical outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Soy food consumption has been attributed to protection against breast cancer, primarily because of the soybean isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein), which are natural estrogen receptor modulators. In vitro studies show that genistein inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells, including hormone-dependent and independent cell types at higher concentrations (10?0 ol/L), while stimulating growth at lower concentrations (<10 ol/L) [61]. Whilst the structure of soy isoflavones mimics estrogen, the majority of human research fails to detect any clinically relevant estrogenic activity, as determined by estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin [62]. In one of the key human intervention studies on soy protein, results were stratified by the amount of soy consumed and showed a dose-response relationship between decreasing risk of breast cancer with an increased soy food intake, translating to a 16 risk reduction per 10 mg of daily isoflavone consumed [63]. However, concerns remain regarding optimal dose of soy foods to ensure improved survival in breast cancer sufferers, and further clinical trials are needed. Soybeans contain a number of anticarcinogens, suggesting that consumption may protect against breast cancer, with non-fermented products such as tofu and soymilk showing more promise. Unfortunately, clinical outcomes in animal and human epidemiological studies are varied, with 65 of studies reporting no effect or slightly protective against breast cancer risk. A recent review demonstrated the protective effect soy consumption has on breast cancer development, recurrence, and mortality [62]. At this stage, soy phytoestrogens require further research [64]. The protective association of soy food appears more pronounced in postmenopausal women. However, the reduced risk of recurrence results should be interpreted with caution given the modest effect and wide confidence intervals for most studies and the lack of dose response relationship in one positive study. Both the breast cancer treatment drug Tamoxifen and dietary phytoestrogens bind estrogen receptors, and many have theorised that soy consumption will reduce drug efficacy. In a study on investigating the association of soy food consumption and survival in breast cancer sufferers, women in the highest soy food intake groups had the lowest mortality and recurrence rate compared with women in the lowest intake group, regardless of tamoxifen use. Among women whose soy intake was in the highest quartile, tamoxifen did not confer additional health benefits [65]. Based on this limited epidemiological data, it follows that moderate soy protein consumption (5?0 g/day) in combination with Tamoxifen use represents the optimal treatment combination for relevant breast cancer patients. Within nutrition science, the critical concept of food synergy recognises that nutrients ex.

Leave a Reply