And entertainment (109). There seems “no way”, she concludes, “to guarantee reverential

And entertainment (109). There seems “no way”, she concludes, “to guarantee reverential conditions in which to look at these pictures and be fully responsive to them” (108). BioShock certainly denies us the possibility of “regarding” Lumley’s pain in any meaningful sense, but it also complicates the idea of the simulacrum as a representation that replaces the real. Within the game — as well as in the archive and the antiques and collectibles market — the value of the photographic image depends on its perceived authenticity and indexical relationship to the subject. If it turned out that the resemblance to Henry Lumley was coincidental, or that Schyman had used actors, things would be completely different. When Nias Wolf writes “honor the dead”, I suspect that what he really means is “honor the remains of the dead”. His concern with the appropriate use of a photograph stems from the belief that photographs “capture” their subjects; that there is, magically, something of us in our likenesses. The way personhood is understood in law is very different. The Human Tissue Act, for example, works on the PD168393 supplier premise that an individual is the sum of his or her body parts. Thus defined, the “person” is protected by the legal requirement of consent. The Act is silent, though, on the subject of photography and film, including clinical purchase GSK2256098 images and images of human remains.38 It seems to me that Lumley and the breathing man point us towards a more dispersed understanding of personhood than that enshrined in the law: one that would encompass facial likeness and perhaps even the historical connotations of breath. If BioShock is unethical, it is surely because it violates a common feeling that photographs of suffering somehow contain or embody their subjects; and that they therefore carry a burden of care.AcknowledgementsSeveral people have played a part in the evolution of this article: in particular, Andrew Bamji, Curator of the Gillies Archives; Paddy Hartley, artistic director of Project Fa de and co-curator of the exhibition Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum; Simon Chaplin and Catherine Draycott at the Wellcome Library; Nick Lambert, Principal Investigator on the AHRC Computer Art Technocultures Project (CAT); James Partridge and Jane Frances of Changing Faces, and Claudia Stein. I am very grateful for their comments. This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Research Leave Award [grant no. 082864].M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R ENotes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Launched in April 2007 by Joanna Ebenstein, a Brooklyn-based graphic designer and photographer, the Morbid Anatomy website is devoted to “the interstices of art and medicine, death and culture”. Game Rankings: http://www.gamerankings.com/ (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). The BioShock II website claims more than 50 Game of the Year awards for the franchise. http://2kgamesinternational.com/uk/games/bioshock2/ (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). http://www.2kgames.com/#/news/2k-games-announces-first-installment-ofbioshock-reg-2-downloadable-content-now-available (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). http://www.gilliesarchives.org.uk/Tonks 20pastels/index.html (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). http://www.readinggroupguides.com/guides_L/life_class2.asp (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). Project Fa de: http://www.projectfacade.com (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). Faces of Battle, Nov. 2007 ug. 2008 NAM, London. War and Medicine, Nov. 2009?Feb. 2009, Wellcome Collection, London. http://www.projectfacade.com/index.php?/case/C81/, http://.And entertainment (109). There seems “no way”, she concludes, “to guarantee reverential conditions in which to look at these pictures and be fully responsive to them” (108). BioShock certainly denies us the possibility of “regarding” Lumley’s pain in any meaningful sense, but it also complicates the idea of the simulacrum as a representation that replaces the real. Within the game — as well as in the archive and the antiques and collectibles market — the value of the photographic image depends on its perceived authenticity and indexical relationship to the subject. If it turned out that the resemblance to Henry Lumley was coincidental, or that Schyman had used actors, things would be completely different. When Nias Wolf writes “honor the dead”, I suspect that what he really means is “honor the remains of the dead”. His concern with the appropriate use of a photograph stems from the belief that photographs “capture” their subjects; that there is, magically, something of us in our likenesses. The way personhood is understood in law is very different. The Human Tissue Act, for example, works on the premise that an individual is the sum of his or her body parts. Thus defined, the “person” is protected by the legal requirement of consent. The Act is silent, though, on the subject of photography and film, including clinical images and images of human remains.38 It seems to me that Lumley and the breathing man point us towards a more dispersed understanding of personhood than that enshrined in the law: one that would encompass facial likeness and perhaps even the historical connotations of breath. If BioShock is unethical, it is surely because it violates a common feeling that photographs of suffering somehow contain or embody their subjects; and that they therefore carry a burden of care.AcknowledgementsSeveral people have played a part in the evolution of this article: in particular, Andrew Bamji, Curator of the Gillies Archives; Paddy Hartley, artistic director of Project Fa de and co-curator of the exhibition Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum; Simon Chaplin and Catherine Draycott at the Wellcome Library; Nick Lambert, Principal Investigator on the AHRC Computer Art Technocultures Project (CAT); James Partridge and Jane Frances of Changing Faces, and Claudia Stein. I am very grateful for their comments. This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Research Leave Award [grant no. 082864].M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R ENotes1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Launched in April 2007 by Joanna Ebenstein, a Brooklyn-based graphic designer and photographer, the Morbid Anatomy website is devoted to “the interstices of art and medicine, death and culture”. Game Rankings: http://www.gamerankings.com/ (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). The BioShock II website claims more than 50 Game of the Year awards for the franchise. http://2kgamesinternational.com/uk/games/bioshock2/ (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). http://www.2kgames.com/#/news/2k-games-announces-first-installment-ofbioshock-reg-2-downloadable-content-now-available (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). http://www.gilliesarchives.org.uk/Tonks 20pastels/index.html (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). http://www.readinggroupguides.com/guides_L/life_class2.asp (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). Project Fa de: http://www.projectfacade.com (accessed 8 Feb. 2011). Faces of Battle, Nov. 2007 ug. 2008 NAM, London. War and Medicine, Nov. 2009?Feb. 2009, Wellcome Collection, London. http://www.projectfacade.com/index.php?/case/C81/, http://.

Leave a Reply