Er locus of control scores in the internal and powerful others

Er locus of control scores in the internal and powerful others subscales, inconsistent with findings in OA patients [9]. The low internal consistency reliability scores of these measures of control warrant further investigation. Our African-American patients also reported higher trust in physicians than their white counterparts. In contrast, studies in patients with cardiac [17] and other rheumatological disease [38, 39] in other centres did not find this racial/ethnic difference. This finding may be specific to our patient population. Alternatively, this may also be a form of reporting bias, as all telephone interviews were conducted by physicians. Our study has certain limitations. As those who receive care at the University of Chicago Rheumatology Clinic are primarily African-American and white, we did not have an opportunity to evaluate the preferences of SLE patients from other racial/ethnic groups, including Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans. Our results are also based on data from patients who agreed to participate in the study. If those who refused to participate and those who were not reached by phone differed from our cohort in significant ways, then the generalizability of our results would be reduced. Most surveys were also conducted by a single physician interviewer (E.V.) andresponse bias may be present among patients of this interviewer (12 of sample). However, we found no differences in patient race/ethnicity, preference for CYC treatment or preference for clinical trial RG7800 web participation among patients of the primary interviewer compared with others. To address the issues of external validity and selection bias, similar studies should be performed at other sites and include both physician and nonphysician interviewers. Finally, our measures of decisionmaking were also framed in a hypothetical manner, therefore we cannot predict patients’ choices if they were actually faced with the decision of accepting CYC or participating in a clinical trial. This study showed that African-American lupus patients may be less likely than their white lupus counterparts to participate in a clinical research trial, although this difference did not quite reach statistical significance. Similarly, African-American lupus patients were less willing to receive a potent yet potentially toxic immunosuppressive agent. However, this racial/ethnic difference disappeared after adjusting for perceived effectiveness of CYC and trust in medical providers. These findings suggest that efforts should be made to increase awareness of the effectiveness of CYC and to enhance trust in medical providers. Such steps may lead to more effective therapy among all lupus patients and reduce persistent racial/ethnic BX795 site disparities in lupus morbidity and mortality. Rheumatology key messages Compared with white lupus patients, AfricanAmerican lupus patients are less willing to receive CYC. . Racial/ethnic difference in willingness to receive CYC is mediated by trust in physicians and perception of medication effectiveness..Funding: ACR/Research and Education Foundation Rheumatology Scientist Development Award. Disclosure statement: E.R.V. is funded by the ACR/ Research and Education Foundation Rheumatology Scientist Development Award. All other authors have declared no conflicts of interest.Supplementary dataSupplementary data are available at Rheumatology Online.
Neurodevelopment, GABA System Dysfunction, and SchizophreniaMartin J Schmidt1 and Karoly Mirnics*,1,2,of BDN.Er locus of control scores in the internal and powerful others subscales, inconsistent with findings in OA patients [9]. The low internal consistency reliability scores of these measures of control warrant further investigation. Our African-American patients also reported higher trust in physicians than their white counterparts. In contrast, studies in patients with cardiac [17] and other rheumatological disease [38, 39] in other centres did not find this racial/ethnic difference. This finding may be specific to our patient population. Alternatively, this may also be a form of reporting bias, as all telephone interviews were conducted by physicians. Our study has certain limitations. As those who receive care at the University of Chicago Rheumatology Clinic are primarily African-American and white, we did not have an opportunity to evaluate the preferences of SLE patients from other racial/ethnic groups, including Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans. Our results are also based on data from patients who agreed to participate in the study. If those who refused to participate and those who were not reached by phone differed from our cohort in significant ways, then the generalizability of our results would be reduced. Most surveys were also conducted by a single physician interviewer (E.V.) andresponse bias may be present among patients of this interviewer (12 of sample). However, we found no differences in patient race/ethnicity, preference for CYC treatment or preference for clinical trial participation among patients of the primary interviewer compared with others. To address the issues of external validity and selection bias, similar studies should be performed at other sites and include both physician and nonphysician interviewers. Finally, our measures of decisionmaking were also framed in a hypothetical manner, therefore we cannot predict patients’ choices if they were actually faced with the decision of accepting CYC or participating in a clinical trial. This study showed that African-American lupus patients may be less likely than their white lupus counterparts to participate in a clinical research trial, although this difference did not quite reach statistical significance. Similarly, African-American lupus patients were less willing to receive a potent yet potentially toxic immunosuppressive agent. However, this racial/ethnic difference disappeared after adjusting for perceived effectiveness of CYC and trust in medical providers. These findings suggest that efforts should be made to increase awareness of the effectiveness of CYC and to enhance trust in medical providers. Such steps may lead to more effective therapy among all lupus patients and reduce persistent racial/ethnic disparities in lupus morbidity and mortality. Rheumatology key messages Compared with white lupus patients, AfricanAmerican lupus patients are less willing to receive CYC. . Racial/ethnic difference in willingness to receive CYC is mediated by trust in physicians and perception of medication effectiveness..Funding: ACR/Research and Education Foundation Rheumatology Scientist Development Award. Disclosure statement: E.R.V. is funded by the ACR/ Research and Education Foundation Rheumatology Scientist Development Award. All other authors have declared no conflicts of interest.Supplementary dataSupplementary data are available at Rheumatology Online.
Neurodevelopment, GABA System Dysfunction, and SchizophreniaMartin J Schmidt1 and Karoly Mirnics*,1,2,of BDN.

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