Ychoactive substances [14, 15] as well as in gambling [16], online gaming [17] and exercising

Ychoactive substances [14, 15] as well as in gambling [16], online gaming [17] and exercising [18]. On the basis of JNJ-26481585MedChemExpress Quisinostat studies examining these other leisure activities, the examination of the motivational background of dancing could be arguably just as important. There have been very few empirical studies that have explored the motivations of dancing. Most studies have used a descriptive-qualitative method of assessment [19?2]. There is only one study that developed and tested a self-report questionnaire of dance motivation. Nieminen [23] created 25 items from dancers’ self-reports (N = 308) that loaded on four factors. The single inclusion criterion was a minimum of three years’ dance experience, although the mean number of years’ experience was nine years (and therefore the study mainly captured experienced dancers). The sample was largely heterogeneous and included many dance types (folk, ballet, ballroom-competitive, and modern). However, this approach is difficult to generalise to other types of dancers given that some of the items created are not applicable to recreational dancers (i.e., “preparing for a career”) while others are specific to certain genres (i.e. “travelling” as a motivation) and not to others. Furthermore, substantial cross-loadings in principal component analysis limit the usability of the separate scales. To the authors’ knowledge, a suitable instrument to assess the motivation of recreational social dancers has yet to be developed. In addition, the majority of studies published on dance motivation have only examined professionals’ motivation to dance rather than recreational (social) dance motivation [19, 22]. However, motivation may be very different in recreational compared to professional dancers given that there are various self-selective processes on route to becoming a professional dancer [24]. Moreover, there is much evidence that recreational and professional athletes have very distinct motivations [25, 26]. For example, professional athletes are generally less motivated by mood enhancement and ABT-737 mechanism of action intrinsic factors (such as exercising for pleasure and satisfaction) that are important predictors of regular exercising among recreational athletes [27?9]. This is especially important because psychological factors mostly influence intrinsically motivated behaviour [30, 31] creating a possible point of intervention to enhance the drive to exercise or dance. The aim of the present research study was two-fold. Firstly, the study aimed to uncover the underlying motivational components of social-recreational dancers. Secondly, the study aimed to operationalize the underlying dimensions found, and develop a scale to assess the identified dimensions. Additionally, the study explored the differences of motivation across gender and the level of dance activity. The study was also designed to improve upon the methodological shortcomings of earlier studies by using a large sample of dancers and control for possible mediating variables such as intensity and experience in the motives for dancing.Method Participants and procedureThe study aimed to capture individuals who participated in Latin dances (i.e., salsa, Latin or ballroom) for recreational and social purposes at least once a week. Data collection was carriedPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122866 March 24,2 /Dance Motivation Inventoryout online. A link to the questionnaire was posted on the most popular Hungarian Latin dance website (latinfo.hu) and shared on Facebo.Ychoactive substances [14, 15] as well as in gambling [16], online gaming [17] and exercising [18]. On the basis of studies examining these other leisure activities, the examination of the motivational background of dancing could be arguably just as important. There have been very few empirical studies that have explored the motivations of dancing. Most studies have used a descriptive-qualitative method of assessment [19?2]. There is only one study that developed and tested a self-report questionnaire of dance motivation. Nieminen [23] created 25 items from dancers’ self-reports (N = 308) that loaded on four factors. The single inclusion criterion was a minimum of three years’ dance experience, although the mean number of years’ experience was nine years (and therefore the study mainly captured experienced dancers). The sample was largely heterogeneous and included many dance types (folk, ballet, ballroom-competitive, and modern). However, this approach is difficult to generalise to other types of dancers given that some of the items created are not applicable to recreational dancers (i.e., “preparing for a career”) while others are specific to certain genres (i.e. “travelling” as a motivation) and not to others. Furthermore, substantial cross-loadings in principal component analysis limit the usability of the separate scales. To the authors’ knowledge, a suitable instrument to assess the motivation of recreational social dancers has yet to be developed. In addition, the majority of studies published on dance motivation have only examined professionals’ motivation to dance rather than recreational (social) dance motivation [19, 22]. However, motivation may be very different in recreational compared to professional dancers given that there are various self-selective processes on route to becoming a professional dancer [24]. Moreover, there is much evidence that recreational and professional athletes have very distinct motivations [25, 26]. For example, professional athletes are generally less motivated by mood enhancement and intrinsic factors (such as exercising for pleasure and satisfaction) that are important predictors of regular exercising among recreational athletes [27?9]. This is especially important because psychological factors mostly influence intrinsically motivated behaviour [30, 31] creating a possible point of intervention to enhance the drive to exercise or dance. The aim of the present research study was two-fold. Firstly, the study aimed to uncover the underlying motivational components of social-recreational dancers. Secondly, the study aimed to operationalize the underlying dimensions found, and develop a scale to assess the identified dimensions. Additionally, the study explored the differences of motivation across gender and the level of dance activity. The study was also designed to improve upon the methodological shortcomings of earlier studies by using a large sample of dancers and control for possible mediating variables such as intensity and experience in the motives for dancing.Method Participants and procedureThe study aimed to capture individuals who participated in Latin dances (i.e., salsa, Latin or ballroom) for recreational and social purposes at least once a week. Data collection was carriedPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122866 March 24,2 /Dance Motivation Inventoryout online. A link to the questionnaire was posted on the most popular Hungarian Latin dance website (latinfo.hu) and shared on Facebo.

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