A lesser extent, by the adrenal cortex. Several tissues, such as

A lesser extent, by the adrenal cortex. Several tissues, such as the brain, produce estradiol for local use, mainly by aromatization of androgens to estradiol. Estradiol’s effects are exerted mainly by binding to intracellular receptors. The estrogen-receptor (ER) binds to another ER, and this dimer is translocated to the nucleus. The hormone-receptor complex binds to specific sites on the DNA (estrogen response elements) and activates or represses transcription of target genes. Estradiol may also bind, or interact, with membrane receptors, and modulate aperture of ionic channels or promote activation of second messenger systems, resulting in a faster response [1]. Indeed, the membrane receptor, GPER (also known as GPR30), a 7 transmembrane G-protein GSK343 web coupled receptor that binds estradiol, was recently described to mediate many of estradiol’s rapid effects [1]. In addition to its well-known role in the regulation of reproductive function, particularly in the female, estradiol exerts multiple effects on non-reproductive tissues, such as adipose, bone and neural tissue. The brain, particularly areas involved in reproductive function and in learning and memory, are rich in estrogen receptors [2]. Estradiol also plays a regulatory role in several aspects of neural plasticity, such as cell growth, axonal elongation, synapse formation, and neuronal differentiation [3,4]. Studies in vitro and in vivo have clearly shown that estradiol is also a potent neuroprotective agent [3], protecting and minimizing the deleterious effects of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease [5] as well as and in brain and spinal cord injury [6-8]. Estradiol also plays an important role in modulating sexual and social behavior in many species [9]. In studies of gender differences, estradiol is found to influence mood, aggressiveness, locomotor activity, and a large range of affective disorders. For example, changes in circulating levels of this steroid are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders such as postpartum depression, perimenopausal depression, and premenstrual dysphoric symptoms [10]. Estradiol also regulates adiposity, energy balance and the expression of several of the peptides involved in hypothalamic regulation of appetite. Indeed, gonadectomy usually results in an increase in body weight, although the exact mechanism has not been clearly established [11,12]. Our laboratories study the effects that estradiol exerts on neural substrates that regulate the response to drugs of abuse and recovery after spinal cord injury. Females in our studies are usually ovariectomized and receive estradiol replacement by SC144MedChemExpress SC144 Silastic implants. The method of estradiol replacement is the subject of much debate among neuroendocrinologists. In some studies estradiol is administered by daily subcutaneous injections. This method has the disadvantage of the stress associated with the injection and daily declining estradiol plasma levels as the estradiol bolus is metabolized [13,14]. To avoid daily injections, which can cause distress to the animal, and in some cases ulceration, estradiol replacement therapy can also be accomplished by implanting a device (Silastic tube, commercial pellet, osmotic pump) that releases estradiol [15].Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ Vet Sci Technol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 March 07.Mosquera et al.PageThe use of a subcutaneous Silastic tube filled w.A lesser extent, by the adrenal cortex. Several tissues, such as the brain, produce estradiol for local use, mainly by aromatization of androgens to estradiol. Estradiol’s effects are exerted mainly by binding to intracellular receptors. The estrogen-receptor (ER) binds to another ER, and this dimer is translocated to the nucleus. The hormone-receptor complex binds to specific sites on the DNA (estrogen response elements) and activates or represses transcription of target genes. Estradiol may also bind, or interact, with membrane receptors, and modulate aperture of ionic channels or promote activation of second messenger systems, resulting in a faster response [1]. Indeed, the membrane receptor, GPER (also known as GPR30), a 7 transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that binds estradiol, was recently described to mediate many of estradiol’s rapid effects [1]. In addition to its well-known role in the regulation of reproductive function, particularly in the female, estradiol exerts multiple effects on non-reproductive tissues, such as adipose, bone and neural tissue. The brain, particularly areas involved in reproductive function and in learning and memory, are rich in estrogen receptors [2]. Estradiol also plays a regulatory role in several aspects of neural plasticity, such as cell growth, axonal elongation, synapse formation, and neuronal differentiation [3,4]. Studies in vitro and in vivo have clearly shown that estradiol is also a potent neuroprotective agent [3], protecting and minimizing the deleterious effects of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease [5] as well as and in brain and spinal cord injury [6-8]. Estradiol also plays an important role in modulating sexual and social behavior in many species [9]. In studies of gender differences, estradiol is found to influence mood, aggressiveness, locomotor activity, and a large range of affective disorders. For example, changes in circulating levels of this steroid are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders such as postpartum depression, perimenopausal depression, and premenstrual dysphoric symptoms [10]. Estradiol also regulates adiposity, energy balance and the expression of several of the peptides involved in hypothalamic regulation of appetite. Indeed, gonadectomy usually results in an increase in body weight, although the exact mechanism has not been clearly established [11,12]. Our laboratories study the effects that estradiol exerts on neural substrates that regulate the response to drugs of abuse and recovery after spinal cord injury. Females in our studies are usually ovariectomized and receive estradiol replacement by Silastic implants. The method of estradiol replacement is the subject of much debate among neuroendocrinologists. In some studies estradiol is administered by daily subcutaneous injections. This method has the disadvantage of the stress associated with the injection and daily declining estradiol plasma levels as the estradiol bolus is metabolized [13,14]. To avoid daily injections, which can cause distress to the animal, and in some cases ulceration, estradiol replacement therapy can also be accomplished by implanting a device (Silastic tube, commercial pellet, osmotic pump) that releases estradiol [15].Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ Vet Sci Technol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 March 07.Mosquera et al.PageThe use of a subcutaneous Silastic tube filled w.

Leave a Reply