Desire to have children and that there are several factors that

Desire to have children and that there are several AG-221MedChemExpress Enasidenib factors that influence this desire [2]. These factors include individual level factors (age, sex, relationship status, number of children, prospective motherhood and fatherhood, subjective health, experience of death of a child due to HIV/AIDS, concerns about orphan-hood for the children, ethnicity, health-related concerns and feelings of internal stigma), interpersonal factors (spousal, family and health workers influences) and community factors (community expressions of APTO-253MedChemExpress LOR-253 stigma and cultural norms andexpectations). Structural influences on the desire to have children include the availability of and access to PMTCT and HAART programmes [2]. HIV-related stigma also affects the desire to have children among PLHIV [3?], albeit in various ways. Erving Goffman’s [8] first defined stigma as a “discrediting attribute”, constituting a “discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity” [8, p. 3]. HIV-related stigma was defined by Herek and Glunt [9] as “all stigma directed at persons perceived to be infected with HIV, regardless of whether they are actually infected and of whether they manifest symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC)” [9, p. 886]. Their definition of stigma included both individual and societal expressions of stigma towards PLHIV. Stigma has a complex relationship with the desire to have children among PLHIV, as it can increase or decrease the desire to have children depending on the form of stigma and the context. In Cote d’Ivoire and the United States, HIV-positive women who had previously experienced stigma, those who feared rejection or had high levels of internalNattabi B et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2012, 15:17421 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/15/2/17421 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.15.2.stigma were more likely to continue to have children [3,5]. In the United States, stigma enhanced the probability of getting pregnant in those women with higher levels of personalized stigma and negative self-image where having more children would conceal their infected status, thus avoiding stigmatization while at the same time improving their feelings of self-worth [5]. Similarly, in Cote d’Ivoire and South Africa, HIV-positive women reported that in order to avoid stigmatization by the community they continued to have children in order to conceal their serostatus [3,4]. In contrast, stigma reduced the probability of having children among PLHIV in the United States who had disclosed their HIV status and those who wanted to avoid their society’s criticism of having a child when infected with HIV and knowing the risks of transmission [5]. In South Africa, it was considered unacceptable for PLHIV to have more children [4], and similarly in Vietnam, PLHIV were concerned about stigma directed towards their children [6]. Health workers’ negative attitudes [4] and perceived community disapproval [7] were also factors that deterred PLHIV from having children. Nevertheless, the desire to have children among PLHIV must be understood within the context of cultural norms and what parenthood means for many people, including PLHIV. Ko and Muecke’s [10] ethnographic study in Taiwan, Smith and Mbakwem’s [11] study in Nigeria, Aka’s [3] study in Cote d’Ivoire and Oosterhoff’s [6] study in Vietnam all showed the strong influence of culture on PLHIV’s desire to have children. An ethnographic study that examined the marriage and fertility desires of PLHIV in Nige.Desire to have children and that there are several factors that influence this desire [2]. These factors include individual level factors (age, sex, relationship status, number of children, prospective motherhood and fatherhood, subjective health, experience of death of a child due to HIV/AIDS, concerns about orphan-hood for the children, ethnicity, health-related concerns and feelings of internal stigma), interpersonal factors (spousal, family and health workers influences) and community factors (community expressions of stigma and cultural norms andexpectations). Structural influences on the desire to have children include the availability of and access to PMTCT and HAART programmes [2]. HIV-related stigma also affects the desire to have children among PLHIV [3?], albeit in various ways. Erving Goffman’s [8] first defined stigma as a “discrediting attribute”, constituting a “discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity” [8, p. 3]. HIV-related stigma was defined by Herek and Glunt [9] as “all stigma directed at persons perceived to be infected with HIV, regardless of whether they are actually infected and of whether they manifest symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC)” [9, p. 886]. Their definition of stigma included both individual and societal expressions of stigma towards PLHIV. Stigma has a complex relationship with the desire to have children among PLHIV, as it can increase or decrease the desire to have children depending on the form of stigma and the context. In Cote d’Ivoire and the United States, HIV-positive women who had previously experienced stigma, those who feared rejection or had high levels of internalNattabi B et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2012, 15:17421 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/15/2/17421 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.15.2.stigma were more likely to continue to have children [3,5]. In the United States, stigma enhanced the probability of getting pregnant in those women with higher levels of personalized stigma and negative self-image where having more children would conceal their infected status, thus avoiding stigmatization while at the same time improving their feelings of self-worth [5]. Similarly, in Cote d’Ivoire and South Africa, HIV-positive women reported that in order to avoid stigmatization by the community they continued to have children in order to conceal their serostatus [3,4]. In contrast, stigma reduced the probability of having children among PLHIV in the United States who had disclosed their HIV status and those who wanted to avoid their society’s criticism of having a child when infected with HIV and knowing the risks of transmission [5]. In South Africa, it was considered unacceptable for PLHIV to have more children [4], and similarly in Vietnam, PLHIV were concerned about stigma directed towards their children [6]. Health workers’ negative attitudes [4] and perceived community disapproval [7] were also factors that deterred PLHIV from having children. Nevertheless, the desire to have children among PLHIV must be understood within the context of cultural norms and what parenthood means for many people, including PLHIV. Ko and Muecke’s [10] ethnographic study in Taiwan, Smith and Mbakwem’s [11] study in Nigeria, Aka’s [3] study in Cote d’Ivoire and Oosterhoff’s [6] study in Vietnam all showed the strong influence of culture on PLHIV’s desire to have children. An ethnographic study that examined the marriage and fertility desires of PLHIV in Nige.

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