Expectations Shift from support to specialised tasks Lack of formal recognition

Expectations Shift from support to specialised tasks Lack of formal recognition, remuneration, mobility Olumacostat glasaretil web shifting relationship with patients and communities Health workers satisfied with surgical assistants’ work Life-saving skills Reduced need for referral Lower cost to patients and families Inadequate remuneration Front-line workers held misconceptions with regards to meaning and intention of taskshifting Task shifting widely accepted in HIV care No policy to guide task shifting, but environment conducive Task shifting can address lack of skills and need for services Task shifting already happening, needs regulation Task shifting as quick fix for the poor Task shifting compromising quality of care and may compromise the health systemCumbi (2007) (Mozambique)Surgery, ObstetricsDambisya (2012) (Uganda)Multi-sectorReview: Task shifting in sub-Saharan AfricaTable 2 (continued)Facility level Secondary, Primary Health workforce analysis All Variable Informal Facility managers, health workers, auxiliary staff FGDs, interviews Study type Cadres involved Tasks shifted Informants Key findings by authors Formal or informal Data collection methods Primary, HIV clinics Programme evaluation Nurses to lay counsellors Counselling, administrative Formal Interviews, observation Secondary, Primary Programme evaluation Nurses to M E officers Data collection and reporting Formal Policy GS-5816 site makers, Facility managers, health workers, lay counsellors, patients Policy makers, Health facility managers, M E officers FGDs and interviews Secondary, Primary Health workforce analysis All cadres Variable Formal and informal Policy makers, national-level managers, CSOs InterviewsH Mijovic et al.#First author, year (country)SectorFerrinho (2012) (Mozamnique and Zambia)Multi-sectorLedikwe (2013) (Botswana)HIVHealthcare workers have to practice beyond their scope of practice to cope with daily tasks Healthcare workers perform tasks they deem necessary without formal instructions Assuming additional tasks is not reflected in job descriptions, remuneration or career progression Ancillary staff and nurses assume the greatest variety of new functions Lay counsellors generally comfortable with work tasks, but some expected to work beyond scope of training/mandate Lack of resources, support, supervisionMpofu (2014) (Botswana)M E?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?Munga (2012) (Tanzania)Multi-sectorImproved M E capacity Increase utilisation of health data More time for nurses and other health workers to focus on clinical duties Importance of clarifying role of new cadres Need to align resources with expectations Sustainability Task-shifting long-standing coping mechanism Task shifting compromised quality of care if not supported by appropriate infrastructure Task shifting increases access to services in remote areas Task shifting may lead to professional discontent Need for additional training and supervisionReviewTable 2 (continued)# Community outreach Health workforce analysis Clinic nurses and midwives to CHWs Curative, preventative, data collection Formal Policy makers, heath facility managers, health workers, patients FGDs and interviewsFirst author, year (country) Facility level Study type Tasks shifted Informants Key findings by authorsSectorCadres involvedFormal or informalData collection methodsOchieng (2014) (Kenya)Primary careSmith (2014) (Malawi)Primary careCommunity outreachHealth wor.Expectations Shift from support to specialised tasks Lack of formal recognition, remuneration, mobility Shifting relationship with patients and communities Health workers satisfied with surgical assistants’ work Life-saving skills Reduced need for referral Lower cost to patients and families Inadequate remuneration Front-line workers held misconceptions with regards to meaning and intention of taskshifting Task shifting widely accepted in HIV care No policy to guide task shifting, but environment conducive Task shifting can address lack of skills and need for services Task shifting already happening, needs regulation Task shifting as quick fix for the poor Task shifting compromising quality of care and may compromise the health systemCumbi (2007) (Mozambique)Surgery, ObstetricsDambisya (2012) (Uganda)Multi-sectorReview: Task shifting in sub-Saharan AfricaTable 2 (continued)Facility level Secondary, Primary Health workforce analysis All Variable Informal Facility managers, health workers, auxiliary staff FGDs, interviews Study type Cadres involved Tasks shifted Informants Key findings by authors Formal or informal Data collection methods Primary, HIV clinics Programme evaluation Nurses to lay counsellors Counselling, administrative Formal Interviews, observation Secondary, Primary Programme evaluation Nurses to M E officers Data collection and reporting Formal Policy makers, Facility managers, health workers, lay counsellors, patients Policy makers, Health facility managers, M E officers FGDs and interviews Secondary, Primary Health workforce analysis All cadres Variable Formal and informal Policy makers, national-level managers, CSOs InterviewsH Mijovic et al.#First author, year (country)SectorFerrinho (2012) (Mozamnique and Zambia)Multi-sectorLedikwe (2013) (Botswana)HIVHealthcare workers have to practice beyond their scope of practice to cope with daily tasks Healthcare workers perform tasks they deem necessary without formal instructions Assuming additional tasks is not reflected in job descriptions, remuneration or career progression Ancillary staff and nurses assume the greatest variety of new functions Lay counsellors generally comfortable with work tasks, but some expected to work beyond scope of training/mandate Lack of resources, support, supervisionMpofu (2014) (Botswana)M E?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?Munga (2012) (Tanzania)Multi-sectorImproved M E capacity Increase utilisation of health data More time for nurses and other health workers to focus on clinical duties Importance of clarifying role of new cadres Need to align resources with expectations Sustainability Task-shifting long-standing coping mechanism Task shifting compromised quality of care if not supported by appropriate infrastructure Task shifting increases access to services in remote areas Task shifting may lead to professional discontent Need for additional training and supervisionReviewTable 2 (continued)# Community outreach Health workforce analysis Clinic nurses and midwives to CHWs Curative, preventative, data collection Formal Policy makers, heath facility managers, health workers, patients FGDs and interviewsFirst author, year (country) Facility level Study type Tasks shifted Informants Key findings by authorsSectorCadres involvedFormal or informalData collection methodsOchieng (2014) (Kenya)Primary careSmith (2014) (Malawi)Primary careCommunity outreachHealth wor.

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