Subjects with alcohol dependence- continuous variables journal.pone.0111391 calculated with Mann-Whitney U Test

Subjects with alcohol dependence- continuous variables calculated with EPZ-5676MedChemExpress Pinometostat Mann-Whitney U Test – categorical/dichotomous variables calculated with Chi-Square-Tests – all tests two-tailed at 95 significance level doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050.tSurvival times and case-fatality ratesKaplan Meier analysis identified an overall mean survival time of 8.1 years (SD = 0.1). Individuals with incident SCD did not show a significantly different survival time than individuals without SCD (M = 8.0, SD = 0.1 vs. M = 8.1, SD = 0.10; Log rank test: p = .90). The mean survival time for individuals with SCD in relation to concerns was 7.9 years (SD = 0.4) and M = 8.0 years (SD = 0.2) without related concerns compared to no SCD (M = 8.1, SD = 0.1; Log rank test: p = .95). The median was not reached yet. In terms of case-fatality rates, overall mortality resulted in 54.6 cases (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7) per 1,000 person-years. In individuals with SCD, case-fatality cumulated in a rate of 55.9 (95 CI = 45.8?8.3) and in individuals without SCD in 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7). When SCD was related to concerns, the case-fatality rate was 52.4 (95 -CI = 32.1?5.6), without related concerns it was 56.7 (95 -CI = 45.5?0.5) and in the absence of SCD 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7).DiscussionWe aimed to investigate the association of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in memory and mortality in incident cases in the elderly. After observing for a follow-up time of 7.5 years, we did not find incident SCD being associated with increased mortality adjusted for potentially ABT-737 web confounding socio-demographic covariates, (S)-(-)-Blebbistatin site comorbid conditions and subsequent dementia in individuals aged 81 years on average. The same was true if we differentiated SCD in relation to concerns. Importantly, there was no relation to mortality even though subjects with SCD had more depressive symptoms and more frequently suffered a TIA than subjects without SCD?both conditions are themselves associated with increased mortality (e.g. [43,44]). Our results from incident SCD cases are thus in line with most of the previous studies that examined the association between SCD in memory performance and mortality in prevalent cases [19?5]. To our knowledge, only one study reported overall evidence for an association between SCD and increased mortality [26]. Besides that, Ogata et al. [27] suggested a possible increased one-year-mortality-rate in women with SCD, but not in men. However, relatedness between these studies’ results has to be seen with caution due to a significant variance in populations and methods. For example, studied age differed from 58 [25] to 82 [26] years on average, follow-up times ranged from three [22] to ten years [25] and studyPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050 January 14,9 /Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mortalitysamples varied from representative samples (e.g. [24]) j.jebo.2013.04.005 to selected samples like nursing-home residents [22]. Besides that, the operationalization of SCD was very heterogeneous. For example, studies assessed SCD either as the frequency of the occurrence of memory problems [24],Table 2. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for the impact of incident subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on mortality (n = 930). Variables UNIVARIATE MODEL SCD MULTIVARIATE MODEL SCD Age, every additional year Male gender Education High Middle Low Marital status Single Married/cohabiting Divorced Widowed JNJ-26481585 molecular weight Living situation Private household, alone Private household, with relative.Subjects with alcohol dependence- continuous variables calculated with Mann-Whitney U Test – categorical/dichotomous variables calculated with Chi-Square-Tests – all tests two-tailed at 95 significance level doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050.tSurvival times and case-fatality ratesKaplan Meier analysis identified an overall mean survival time of 8.1 years (SD = 0.1). Individuals with incident SCD did not show a significantly different survival time than individuals without SCD (M = 8.0, SD = 0.1 vs. M = 8.1, SD = 0.10; Log rank test: p = .90). The mean survival time for individuals with SCD in relation to concerns was 7.9 years (SD = 0.4) and M = 8.0 years (SD = 0.2) without related concerns compared to no SCD (M = 8.1, SD = 0.1; Log rank test: p = .95). The median was not reached yet. In terms of case-fatality rates, overall mortality resulted in 54.6 cases (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7) per 1,000 person-years. In individuals with SCD, case-fatality cumulated in a rate of 55.9 (95 CI = 45.8?8.3) and in individuals without SCD in 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7). When SCD was related to concerns, the case-fatality rate was 52.4 (95 -CI = 32.1?5.6), without related concerns it was 56.7 (95 -CI = 45.5?0.5) and in the absence of SCD 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7).DiscussionWe aimed to investigate the association of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in memory and mortality in incident cases in the elderly. After observing for a follow-up time of 7.5 years, we did not find incident SCD being associated with increased mortality adjusted for potentially confounding socio-demographic covariates, comorbid conditions and subsequent dementia in individuals aged 81 years on average. The same was true if we differentiated SCD in relation to concerns. Importantly, there was no relation to mortality even though subjects with SCD had more depressive symptoms and more frequently suffered a TIA than subjects without SCD?both conditions are themselves associated with increased mortality (e.g. [43,44]). Our results from incident SCD cases are thus in line with most of the previous studies that examined the association between SCD in memory performance and mortality in prevalent cases [19?5]. To our knowledge, only one study reported overall evidence for an association between SCD and increased mortality [26]. Besides that, Ogata et al. [27] suggested a possible increased one-year-mortality-rate in women with SCD, but not in men. However, relatedness between these studies’ results has to be seen with caution due to a significant variance in populations and methods. For example, studied age differed from 58 [25] to 82 [26] years on average, follow-up times ranged from three [22] to ten years [25] and studyPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050 January 14,9 /Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mortalitysamples varied from representative samples (e.g. [24]) j.jebo.2013.04.005 to selected samples like nursing-home residents [22]. Besides that, the operationalization of SCD was very heterogeneous. For example, studies assessed SCD either as the frequency of the occurrence of memory problems [24],Table 2. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for the impact of incident subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on mortality (n = 930). Variables UNIVARIATE MODEL SCD MULTIVARIATE MODEL SCD Age, every additional year Male gender Education High Middle Low Marital status Single Married/cohabiting Divorced Widowed Living situation Private household, alone Private household, with relative.Subjects with alcohol dependence- continuous variables calculated with Mann-Whitney U Test – categorical/dichotomous variables calculated with Chi-Square-Tests – all tests two-tailed at 95 significance level doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050.tSurvival times and case-fatality ratesKaplan Meier analysis identified an overall mean survival time of 8.1 years (SD = 0.1). Individuals with incident SCD did not show a significantly different survival time than individuals without SCD (M = 8.0, SD = 0.1 vs. M = 8.1, SD = 0.10; Log rank test: p = .90). The mean survival time for individuals with SCD in relation to concerns was 7.9 years (SD = 0.4) and M = 8.0 years (SD = 0.2) without related concerns compared to no SCD (M = 8.1, SD = 0.1; Log rank test: p = .95). The median was not reached yet. In terms of case-fatality rates, overall mortality resulted in 54.6 cases (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7) per 1,000 person-years. In individuals with SCD, case-fatality cumulated in a rate of 55.9 (95 CI = 45.8?8.3) and in individuals without SCD in 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7). When SCD was related to concerns, the case-fatality rate was 52.4 (95 -CI = 32.1?5.6), without related concerns it was 56.7 (95 -CI = 45.5?0.5) and in the absence of SCD 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7).DiscussionWe aimed to investigate the association of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in memory and mortality in incident cases in the elderly. After observing for a follow-up time of 7.5 years, we did not find incident SCD being associated with increased mortality adjusted for potentially confounding socio-demographic covariates, comorbid conditions and subsequent dementia in individuals aged 81 years on average. The same was true if we differentiated SCD in relation to concerns. Importantly, there was no relation to mortality even though subjects with SCD had more depressive symptoms and more frequently suffered a TIA than subjects without SCD?both conditions are themselves associated with increased mortality (e.g. [43,44]). Our results from incident SCD cases are thus in line with most of the previous studies that examined the association between SCD in memory performance and mortality in prevalent cases [19?5]. To our knowledge, only one study reported overall evidence for an association between SCD and increased mortality [26]. Besides that, Ogata et al. [27] suggested a possible increased one-year-mortality-rate in women with SCD, but not in men. However, relatedness between these studies’ results has to be seen with caution due to a significant variance in populations and methods. For example, studied age differed from 58 [25] to 82 [26] years on average, follow-up times ranged from three [22] to ten years [25] and studyPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050 January 14,9 /Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mortalitysamples varied from representative samples (e.g. [24]) j.jebo.2013.04.005 to selected samples like nursing-home residents [22]. Besides that, the operationalization of SCD was very heterogeneous. For example, studies assessed SCD either as the frequency of the occurrence of memory problems [24],Table 2. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for the impact of incident subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on mortality (n = 930). Variables UNIVARIATE MODEL SCD MULTIVARIATE MODEL SCD Age, every additional year Male gender Education High Middle Low Marital status Single Married/cohabiting Divorced Widowed Living situation Private household, alone Private household, with relative.Subjects with alcohol dependence- continuous variables calculated with Mann-Whitney U Test – categorical/dichotomous variables calculated with Chi-Square-Tests – all tests two-tailed at 95 significance level doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050.tSurvival times and case-fatality ratesKaplan Meier analysis identified an overall mean survival time of 8.1 years (SD = 0.1). Individuals with incident SCD did not show a significantly different survival time than individuals without SCD (M = 8.0, SD = 0.1 vs. M = 8.1, SD = 0.10; Log rank test: p = .90). The mean survival time for individuals with SCD in relation to concerns was 7.9 years (SD = 0.4) and M = 8.0 years (SD = 0.2) without related concerns compared to no SCD (M = 8.1, SD = 0.1; Log rank test: p = .95). The median was not reached yet. In terms of case-fatality rates, overall mortality resulted in 54.6 cases (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7) per 1,000 person-years. In individuals with SCD, case-fatality cumulated in a rate of 55.9 (95 CI = 45.8?8.3) and in individuals without SCD in 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7). When SCD was related to concerns, the case-fatality rate was 52.4 (95 -CI = 32.1?5.6), without related concerns it was 56.7 (95 -CI = 45.5?0.5) and in the absence of SCD 54.2 (95 -CI = 48.3?0.7).DiscussionWe aimed to investigate the association of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in memory and mortality in incident cases in the elderly. After observing for a follow-up time of 7.5 years, we did not find incident SCD being associated with increased mortality adjusted for potentially confounding socio-demographic covariates, comorbid conditions and subsequent dementia in individuals aged 81 years on average. The same was true if we differentiated SCD in relation to concerns. Importantly, there was no relation to mortality even though subjects with SCD had more depressive symptoms and more frequently suffered a TIA than subjects without SCD?both conditions are themselves associated with increased mortality (e.g. [43,44]). Our results from incident SCD cases are thus in line with most of the previous studies that examined the association between SCD in memory performance and mortality in prevalent cases [19?5]. To our knowledge, only one study reported overall evidence for an association between SCD and increased mortality [26]. Besides that, Ogata et al. [27] suggested a possible increased one-year-mortality-rate in women with SCD, but not in men. However, relatedness between these studies’ results has to be seen with caution due to a significant variance in populations and methods. For example, studied age differed from 58 [25] to 82 [26] years on average, follow-up times ranged from three [22] to ten years [25] and studyPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0147050 January 14,9 /Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mortalitysamples varied from representative samples (e.g. [24]) j.jebo.2013.04.005 to selected samples like nursing-home residents [22]. Besides that, the operationalization of SCD was very heterogeneous. For example, studies assessed SCD either as the frequency of the occurrence of memory problems [24],Table 2. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for the impact of incident subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on mortality (n = 930). Variables UNIVARIATE MODEL SCD MULTIVARIATE MODEL SCD Age, every additional year Male gender Education High Middle Low Marital status Single Married/cohabiting Divorced Widowed Living situation Private household, alone Private household, with relative.

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