Onal claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.Copyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This short article is an open access short article distributed below the terms and situations of your Inventive Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (licenses/by/ 4.0/).Energies 2021, 14, 7392. ten.3390/enmdpi/journal/energiesEnergies 2021, 14,two ofa vessel known as the dispenser that acts as a feeder tank. Within the dispenser, the particles are fluidized and an upward particle flow inside the tubes is obtained by applying a stress within the freeboard from the dispenser. This type of flow differs considerably from risers, broadly studied in the literature, due to the fact it is not merely the velocity from the carrier phase (i.e., air) that generates the upward flow of particles but a mixture with the latter plus a pressure gradient in between the dispenser along with the collector. Because of this, the solid volume fraction with the generated upward flow varies within a wide range. This concept, much more detailed in Section two.1, presents many technological benefits. First, the use of a tubular receiver that is definitely comparable to these utilized with molten salts. Second, particles are certainly not restricted to a particular operating temperature range, contrary to molten salts. Third, the exact same medium is often applied as HTF and storage material. At substantial scale and higher temperature (700 C), the usage of a cavity is required to enhance thermal efficiency by Aluminum Hydroxide supplier reducing thermal losses . In addition, high operation temperatures open the route for high-temperature thermodynamic cycles that increase the heat-to-electricity efficiency . Added positive aspects are financial and environmental. Depending around the chosen particles, it might drastically lower the costs of your HTF and storage medium: about 15000 /ton, i.e., drastically less than molten salts . Ultimately, the usage of mineral particles permits a reduction in the environmental footprint of your power plant . Many papers have already been published within the framework with the Concentrated Solar Energy in Particles (CSP2) as well as the Next-CSP European projects [10,11]. The studied configurations focus on one particular or various tubes, with irradiated heights of 1 m and with aeration flow prices and particles mass fluxes up to 0.7 sm3 /h and 110 kg/m2 s respectively . Wall-to-fluidized bed heat transfer coefficients as much as 1200 W/m2 K happen to be observed experimentally with finned tubes. These articles emphasize that the thermal performances of your solar receiver are strongly correlated to the hydrodynamics in the two-phase flow. Two transitions of regime happen to be identified within this type of tube: from bubbling to wall slugging then to axisymmetric slugging [16,17]. Since the formation of axisymmetric slugs Cephalotin Epigenetics result in a considerable lower on the wall-to-bed heat transfer simply because of a reduction of particle mixing, the identification on the fluidization regime is important for solar applications [18,19]. Nevertheless, these earlier experimental studies concentrate mainly on the proof of concept and on global understanding of your heat transfer beneath solar irradiation . Experimental set-ups have been richly instrumented in thermocouples but poorly when it comes to stress probes along the receiver, which prevented the identification with the different fluidization regimes. In more recent research, fluidization regimes had been analysed by signifies of a highspeed camera [16,19]. Even so, in  the authors studied only a particle non-circulating configuration. The use of temporal stress signals, which can be.