Lls (26103) were then cultured into each well of round-bottom, 96-well plates

Lls (26103) were then cultured into each well of round-bottom, 96-well plates containing 26104 irradiated (40 Gy) allogeneic PBMC, 26103 irradiated (70 Gy) EBV-transformed allogeneic B cells, 0.5 mg/ml PHA (Sigma), and 200 U/ml recombinant interleukin 2 (Proleukin, Novartis Pharma). Growing lines were expanded in 200 U/ml IL-2 and restimulated every 2 weeks. Usually, cells were collected after 4? weeks of culture to be used for functional assays in vitro.Cytotoxic AssayTarget colon CIC (105 cellsml) were pre-treated with 5-FU (2.5?250 mg/ml), DXR (0.025?.5 mM) or zoledronate (0.5 mM) for 24, 48 or 72 hrs. Cells were extensively washed in PBS and stained with CFSE (Merck, Milano, Italy) as follows: 50 ml of CFSE were added to 1 ml of target sphere cell suspension (56105 cells/ml) in PBS to obtain the final concentration of 2.5 mM CFSE. The cells were incubated for 10 minutes at 37uC and gently mixed every 5 min. At the 16574785 end of incubation, 1 ml of FBS was added to the cell suspension to stop the staining reaction and the cells were centrifuged at 600 g for 5 min at room temperature, washed twice with cold PBS and resuspended in serum-free medium. Vc9Vd2 T cell lines were resuspended at the final concentrations of 106 and 2.56106 cells/ml, were added to CFSE-stained target colon CICs (16105) and co-cultures were maintained for 6 hrs a 37uC in presence of 5 of CO2. At the end of the incubation period, the cells were washed with PBS and stained with 20 ml of Propidium Iodide (PI, Sigma, 1 mg/ml) for 10?15 min in ice. Finally 100 ml of cold PBS were added before acquisition on a FACSCalibur cytometer (BD Biosciences). The calculation of cytolytic activity was based on the degree of reduction of viable target cells with the ability to retain CFSE and exclude PI (CFSEhigh PI2), according to reference [27]. Blocking agents were used to evaluate the mechanisms of Vc9Vd2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity of colon CICs. To evaluate the contribution of mevalonate metabolites tumor target cells were treated with mevastatin (25 mM for 2 h) a selective upstream inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway. After this incubation period, target cells were washed, and Vc9Vd2 T cells added in theStatisticsThe two-tailed Student’s t test was used to compare significance of differences between groups. All values are expressed as mean 6 standard deviation (SD).Supporting InformationFigure S1 A low number of colon CIC spheres retain the capacity to form a tumor when injected s.c. into immunodeficient mice. Subcutaneous tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice 10 weeks after injection of 2000 disaggregated cells from colon cancer spheres. One representative experiment of two performed with cells from different donors is shown. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Ruggero De Maria, Vaclav Horejsi, Marc Bonneville, Giovanni Triolo and Henning Walczak for providing us with the cell lines and reagents.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: GS FD. Performed the experiments: MT VO NC SM. Analyzed the data: GC GS FD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GS FD. Wrote the paper: GS FD.
Influenza virus infection is a common cause of hospitalization and death, and worldwide the mortality from seasonal influenza virus infection is estimated to be 250,000 to 500,000 persons per year [1]. Pregnant women are at increased risk for influenzaassociated illness and death [2,3]. Neuzil et al. [4] quantified influenza-related serious morbidity in pregnant women during predefined influ.

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