Roteomics. In a proteomics study that compared VSSA and VISA strains

Roteomics. In a proteomics study that compared VSSA and VISA strains, several differentially expressed proteins were identified [16]. Another study identified 65 significant protein abundance changes by comparing three isogenic strains derived from a clinical VISA isolate [17]. To our knowledge, a comparative proteomics analysis of hVISA strains has not been performed to date. Here, we used comparative proteomics to analyze hVISA and VSSA strains isolated from the same patients treated with vancomycin. The differentially expressed proteins identified in our screen were validated in six pairs of isogenic hVISA and VSSA strains and unrelated hVISA (n = 24) and VSSA (n = 30) strains to identify the potential resistance mechanisms of hVISA. To further analyze the potential association of these differentially expressed genes with persistent infection, their expression was examined in 15 pairs of persistent VSSA strains. The results of our study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying hVISA resistance.and 1026 was inoculated onto brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/mL of vancomycin. After 48 h of incubation at 35uC, the colonies were counted and the log CFU/mL was plotted against vancomycin concentration. The ratio of the AUC of the test isolate to the AUC of S. aureus Mu3 was calculated and interpreted as follows: for VSSA, a ratio of ,0.9; for hVISA, a ratio of 0.9 to 1.3; and for VISA, a ratio of 1.3. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the reference VSSA strain.Molecular Typing MethodsAll isolates were analyzed by SCCmec typing, spa typing, MLST typing, and PFGE. The SCCmec types were determined by the multiplex PCR strategy developed by Kondo et al. [18]. The spa typing was performed as described previously [19]. Purified spa PCR products were sequenced, and short sequence repeats were assigned by using the spa database website (http://www.ridom. de/spaserver). MLST was carried out as described previously [20]. The sequences of the PCR products were compared with the existing sequences available on the MLST website (http://saureus. mlst.net) for S. aureus. DNA extraction and SmaI restriction were performed as described previously [21]. The PFGE patterns were visually examined and interpreted according to the criteria of Tenover et al. [22].Materials and MethodsThe study protocol and written informed consent were approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of inhibitor Peking University People’s Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients at the time of enrollment.Protein Sample PreparationOvernight cultures of VSSA and hVISA strains were diluted at 1/100 in BHI broth and harvested at similar culture densities (exponential phase, OD600 nm = 0.5). The samples were centrifuged at 7,000 g for 10 min to collect the deposits. The deposits were then washed in 50 mM PBS three times and incubated in 220 mL of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5; 50 mL of 1 mg/ mL Epigenetics lysostaphin; 4 mL of protease inhibitor cocktail; and 6 mL of DNase for 30 min at 37uC. Subsequently, 1.5 mL of 2D lysis buffer (100 mL acetone, 20 mM DTT, 10 TCA) was added, and the samples were vortexed and frozen at ?0uC for 2 h. Samples were centrifuged at maximum speed in a microcentrifuge for 2 min to remove insoluble materials, and protein was quantitated using the 2D Quant Kit (GE Healthcare, Arizona, USA).Bacterial IsolatesA clinical VSSA (CN9) strain with a vancomycin MIC of 0.5 mg/mL and teicoplanin MIC of 2 mg/m.Roteomics. In a proteomics study that compared VSSA and VISA strains, several differentially expressed proteins were identified [16]. Another study identified 65 significant protein abundance changes by comparing three isogenic strains derived from a clinical VISA isolate [17]. To our knowledge, a comparative proteomics analysis of hVISA strains has not been performed to date. Here, we used comparative proteomics to analyze hVISA and VSSA strains isolated from the same patients treated with vancomycin. The differentially expressed proteins identified in our screen were validated in six pairs of isogenic hVISA and VSSA strains and unrelated hVISA (n = 24) and VSSA (n = 30) strains to identify the potential resistance mechanisms of hVISA. To further analyze the potential association of these differentially expressed genes with persistent infection, their expression was examined in 15 pairs of persistent VSSA strains. The results of our study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying hVISA resistance.and 1026 was inoculated onto brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/mL of vancomycin. After 48 h of incubation at 35uC, the colonies were counted and the log CFU/mL was plotted against vancomycin concentration. The ratio of the AUC of the test isolate to the AUC of S. aureus Mu3 was calculated and interpreted as follows: for VSSA, a ratio of ,0.9; for hVISA, a ratio of 0.9 to 1.3; and for VISA, a ratio of 1.3. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the reference VSSA strain.Molecular Typing MethodsAll isolates were analyzed by SCCmec typing, spa typing, MLST typing, and PFGE. The SCCmec types were determined by the multiplex PCR strategy developed by Kondo et al. [18]. The spa typing was performed as described previously [19]. Purified spa PCR products were sequenced, and short sequence repeats were assigned by using the spa database website (http://www.ridom. de/spaserver). MLST was carried out as described previously [20]. The sequences of the PCR products were compared with the existing sequences available on the MLST website (http://saureus. mlst.net) for S. aureus. DNA extraction and SmaI restriction were performed as described previously [21]. The PFGE patterns were visually examined and interpreted according to the criteria of Tenover et al. [22].Materials and MethodsThe study protocol and written informed consent were approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Peking University People’s Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients at the time of enrollment.Protein Sample PreparationOvernight cultures of VSSA and hVISA strains were diluted at 1/100 in BHI broth and harvested at similar culture densities (exponential phase, OD600 nm = 0.5). The samples were centrifuged at 7,000 g for 10 min to collect the deposits. The deposits were then washed in 50 mM PBS three times and incubated in 220 mL of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5; 50 mL of 1 mg/ mL lysostaphin; 4 mL of protease inhibitor cocktail; and 6 mL of DNase for 30 min at 37uC. Subsequently, 1.5 mL of 2D lysis buffer (100 mL acetone, 20 mM DTT, 10 TCA) was added, and the samples were vortexed and frozen at ?0uC for 2 h. Samples were centrifuged at maximum speed in a microcentrifuge for 2 min to remove insoluble materials, and protein was quantitated using the 2D Quant Kit (GE Healthcare, Arizona, USA).Bacterial IsolatesA clinical VSSA (CN9) strain with a vancomycin MIC of 0.5 mg/mL and teicoplanin MIC of 2 mg/m.

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