Ed in either a calcium-containing orMechanisms of Temporin-1CEa Induced CytotoxicityFigure

Ed in either a calcium-containing orMechanisms of Temporin-1CEa Induced CytotoxicityFigure 2. Morphological changes of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells upon one-hour exposure to temporin-1CEa. SEM (A) and TEM (B) evaluation of breast cancer cells treated with 22948146 temporin-1CEa. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060462.ga calcium-free situation. In the calcium-containing situation, FACS analysis indicated that incubation of temporin-1CEa on MDA-MB-231 (Figs. 7A) or MCF-7 cells (Fig. 7B) led to an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. This upregulation of the Ca2+ content might be due to an influx of extracellular Ca2+, and/or an endogenous Ca2+ release from the intracellular calcium stores. To further clarify whether temporin-1CEa-caused intracellular Ca2+ elevation was induced by an endogenous Ca2+ release or an extracellular Ca2+ influx, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was determined in a calcium-free situation. FACS analysis demonstrated that one-hour treatment of cancer cells with temporin-1CEa under calcium-free medium also caused significant upregulations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This upregulation of Ca2+ level was due to the calcium leakage from intracellular 4EGI-1 web stores because of the calcium-free medium (Figs. 7C-7D). However, the up-regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration was declined in cells treated with a higher dose of temporin-1CEa (at 40?0 mM for MDA-MB-231 and 30?40 mM for MCF-7 cells), which might be due to Ca2+ efflux induced by transmembrane Ca2+ gradient or due to the seriously disrupted membrane structure during the late phage of peptides exposure. These results suggested that temporin-1CEa could induce an intracellular Ca2+ overload and 11967625 that this effect was independent of extracellular Ca2+ concentrations.Temporin-1CEa Disrupts the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (Dwm)Temporin-1CEa disrupted the membrane integrity and uptake into cells. Given the negative charge of mitochondrial membranes, mitochondria are possibly the preferential intracellular structural target for internalized temporin-1CEa. Moreover, the elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration is usually preceded or accompanied with a reduction in the Dwm. To address whether temporin-1CEa-induced calcium overload is associated with the changes of Dwm, MDA-MB231 or MCF-7 cells were treated with temporin-1CEa and were Ergocalciferol site stained with rhodamine 123 to assess the Dwm. Treatment with temporin-1CEa produced a remarkable loss of Dwm at higher concentrations (at 60?0 mM for MDA-MB-231, Fig. 8A; and 40 mM for MCF-7 cells, Fig. 8B).ROS Generation in Temporin-1CEa-treated Cancer CellsTemporin-1CEa-induced intracellular ROS generation was evaluated using intracellular peroxide-dependent oxidation of DCFH-DA to form fluorescent DCF. DCF fluorescence was detected after cells were treated with temporin-1CEa for 60 min.Mechanisms of Temporin-1CEa Induced CytotoxicityFigure 3. Temporin-1CEa induced loss of membrane integrity and phosphatidylserine exposure in two human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 cells (A) or MCF-7 cells (B) were incubated with various concentrations of temporin-1CEa for one hour and then were stained with Annexin-V-FITC/PI. Fluorescence intensity was determined using flow cytometry. Each bar represents the mean value from three determinations with the standard deviation (SD). Data (mean 6 SD) with asterisk significantly differ (*p,0.05; **p,0.01) between treatments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060462.gThe group with absence of temporin-1CEa was a n.Ed in either a calcium-containing orMechanisms of Temporin-1CEa Induced CytotoxicityFigure 2. Morphological changes of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells upon one-hour exposure to temporin-1CEa. SEM (A) and TEM (B) evaluation of breast cancer cells treated with 22948146 temporin-1CEa. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060462.ga calcium-free situation. In the calcium-containing situation, FACS analysis indicated that incubation of temporin-1CEa on MDA-MB-231 (Figs. 7A) or MCF-7 cells (Fig. 7B) led to an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. This upregulation of the Ca2+ content might be due to an influx of extracellular Ca2+, and/or an endogenous Ca2+ release from the intracellular calcium stores. To further clarify whether temporin-1CEa-caused intracellular Ca2+ elevation was induced by an endogenous Ca2+ release or an extracellular Ca2+ influx, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was determined in a calcium-free situation. FACS analysis demonstrated that one-hour treatment of cancer cells with temporin-1CEa under calcium-free medium also caused significant upregulations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This upregulation of Ca2+ level was due to the calcium leakage from intracellular stores because of the calcium-free medium (Figs. 7C-7D). However, the up-regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration was declined in cells treated with a higher dose of temporin-1CEa (at 40?0 mM for MDA-MB-231 and 30?40 mM for MCF-7 cells), which might be due to Ca2+ efflux induced by transmembrane Ca2+ gradient or due to the seriously disrupted membrane structure during the late phage of peptides exposure. These results suggested that temporin-1CEa could induce an intracellular Ca2+ overload and 11967625 that this effect was independent of extracellular Ca2+ concentrations.Temporin-1CEa Disrupts the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (Dwm)Temporin-1CEa disrupted the membrane integrity and uptake into cells. Given the negative charge of mitochondrial membranes, mitochondria are possibly the preferential intracellular structural target for internalized temporin-1CEa. Moreover, the elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration is usually preceded or accompanied with a reduction in the Dwm. To address whether temporin-1CEa-induced calcium overload is associated with the changes of Dwm, MDA-MB231 or MCF-7 cells were treated with temporin-1CEa and were stained with rhodamine 123 to assess the Dwm. Treatment with temporin-1CEa produced a remarkable loss of Dwm at higher concentrations (at 60?0 mM for MDA-MB-231, Fig. 8A; and 40 mM for MCF-7 cells, Fig. 8B).ROS Generation in Temporin-1CEa-treated Cancer CellsTemporin-1CEa-induced intracellular ROS generation was evaluated using intracellular peroxide-dependent oxidation of DCFH-DA to form fluorescent DCF. DCF fluorescence was detected after cells were treated with temporin-1CEa for 60 min.Mechanisms of Temporin-1CEa Induced CytotoxicityFigure 3. Temporin-1CEa induced loss of membrane integrity and phosphatidylserine exposure in two human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 cells (A) or MCF-7 cells (B) were incubated with various concentrations of temporin-1CEa for one hour and then were stained with Annexin-V-FITC/PI. Fluorescence intensity was determined using flow cytometry. Each bar represents the mean value from three determinations with the standard deviation (SD). Data (mean 6 SD) with asterisk significantly differ (*p,0.05; **p,0.01) between treatments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060462.gThe group with absence of temporin-1CEa was a n.

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