Entricular wall thickness [16]. All data were normalized to body surface area

Entricular wall thickness [16]. All data were normalized to body surface area (BSA) using the Dubois formula (BSA = 0.0071846height0.7256weight0.425) [17]. Calculation of concentricity ( = left ventricular mass to enddiastolic volume ratio) [18] was performed to evaluate effects on cardiac remodeling. Additionally, a FLASH-based (fast low angle shot) retrospective ECG-gated cine phase contrast sequence was used to determine E/A ratio of mitral inflow (evaluated via ARGUS software) as a measure of left ventricular diastolic function [19,20].H-MRS for quantification of myocardial lipid content (MYCL). Myocardial lipid measurements were performed usingStudy DesignThe time 1676428 span between the clinical assessment in the outpatient unit and the hospitalization was 7.561.8 days (run-in phase). During this time period compliance with the oral medication was strongly recommended and patients were instructed that in case of persistently insufficient metabolic control the initiation of IT was intended. Additionally, patients provided standardized records of self-blood glucose monitoring until the baseline get SC 1 1H-magnetic resonance imaging (-MRI) and spectroscopy (-MRS) examination. Thereafter, standardized IT (three times daily dual release human insulin analogue suspension containing 30 soluble insulin aspart and 70 insulin aspart protamine crystals, NovoMix 30H, Novo Nordisk, Vienna, Austria) was initiated in patients with secondary failure to oral anti-diabetic treatment (mean plasma glucose .190 mg/dl; IT-group). In these patients all blood-glucose lowering agents except for metformin were discontinued simultaneously with the initiation of IT. Likely, due to the improved compliance to the oral-medication during the run-in phaselocalized 1H-MRS based on recently introduced methods [7,14,20,21]. Anatomic imaging was used to guide water MedChemExpress Castanospermine suppressed Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence (echo time, TE = 30 ms, NS = 16). The volume of the interest (VOI; approx. 6? cm3) was placed over the interventricular septum. The acquisition of MR signal was performed during multiple breath holds using the multichannel cardiac reception coil provided by the system manufacturer (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and triggered by ECG signal. For the signal acquisition in the mid-diastole trigger delay was adjusted individually. Repetition time of the sequence was given by theInsulin Alters Myocardial Lipids and MorphologyTable 1. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with T2DM treated with standardized IT compared with individuals under oral anti-diabetic therapy (OT).Characteristics Age (years) Sex (f/m) Diabetes duration (years) HbA1c ( ) BMI (kg/m2) BP syst./diast. (mmHg) Plasma glucose (mg/dl) Cholesterol (mg/dl) LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) Triglycerides (mg/dl) HDL- cholesterol (mg/dl) Albumin (g/l) Creatinine (mg/dl) Albumin-Crea-Quot (mg/dl) Pro BNP (pg/ml) Insulin dose (IU/day)Baseline N = 8 (oral medication, OT) (mean ?SEM) 5362 4/4 361 9.860.7 3061.7 13769/7763 182614 217622 135619 225664 5065 4361.6 0.8460.03 1462.4 3869 n. a.Baseline N = 10 (standardized IT) (mean ?SEM) 5863 4/6 962{ 11.160.4 3061.7 13464/7564 231619 19569 117610 192630 4063 4461.0 0.9460.11 31610.4 124666Day 10 N = 10 (standardized IT) (mean ?SEM) ???n. a. 3061.7 12262/7165 15068* 15468* n. a. 166616 n. a. n. a. n. a. n. a. n. a. 3967*Follow up N = 7 (standardized IT) 23115181 (mean ?SEM) ???8.360.4{ 3062.3 13863/8164 146625 163615{ 88613 147641 4564 4460.7 0.8960.11 1967.3 8.Entricular wall thickness [16]. All data were normalized to body surface area (BSA) using the Dubois formula (BSA = 0.0071846height0.7256weight0.425) [17]. Calculation of concentricity ( = left ventricular mass to enddiastolic volume ratio) [18] was performed to evaluate effects on cardiac remodeling. Additionally, a FLASH-based (fast low angle shot) retrospective ECG-gated cine phase contrast sequence was used to determine E/A ratio of mitral inflow (evaluated via ARGUS software) as a measure of left ventricular diastolic function [19,20].H-MRS for quantification of myocardial lipid content (MYCL). Myocardial lipid measurements were performed usingStudy DesignThe time 1676428 span between the clinical assessment in the outpatient unit and the hospitalization was 7.561.8 days (run-in phase). During this time period compliance with the oral medication was strongly recommended and patients were instructed that in case of persistently insufficient metabolic control the initiation of IT was intended. Additionally, patients provided standardized records of self-blood glucose monitoring until the baseline 1H-magnetic resonance imaging (-MRI) and spectroscopy (-MRS) examination. Thereafter, standardized IT (three times daily dual release human insulin analogue suspension containing 30 soluble insulin aspart and 70 insulin aspart protamine crystals, NovoMix 30H, Novo Nordisk, Vienna, Austria) was initiated in patients with secondary failure to oral anti-diabetic treatment (mean plasma glucose .190 mg/dl; IT-group). In these patients all blood-glucose lowering agents except for metformin were discontinued simultaneously with the initiation of IT. Likely, due to the improved compliance to the oral-medication during the run-in phaselocalized 1H-MRS based on recently introduced methods [7,14,20,21]. Anatomic imaging was used to guide water suppressed Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence (echo time, TE = 30 ms, NS = 16). The volume of the interest (VOI; approx. 6? cm3) was placed over the interventricular septum. The acquisition of MR signal was performed during multiple breath holds using the multichannel cardiac reception coil provided by the system manufacturer (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and triggered by ECG signal. For the signal acquisition in the mid-diastole trigger delay was adjusted individually. Repetition time of the sequence was given by theInsulin Alters Myocardial Lipids and MorphologyTable 1. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with T2DM treated with standardized IT compared with individuals under oral anti-diabetic therapy (OT).Characteristics Age (years) Sex (f/m) Diabetes duration (years) HbA1c ( ) BMI (kg/m2) BP syst./diast. (mmHg) Plasma glucose (mg/dl) Cholesterol (mg/dl) LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) Triglycerides (mg/dl) HDL- cholesterol (mg/dl) Albumin (g/l) Creatinine (mg/dl) Albumin-Crea-Quot (mg/dl) Pro BNP (pg/ml) Insulin dose (IU/day)Baseline N = 8 (oral medication, OT) (mean ?SEM) 5362 4/4 361 9.860.7 3061.7 13769/7763 182614 217622 135619 225664 5065 4361.6 0.8460.03 1462.4 3869 n. a.Baseline N = 10 (standardized IT) (mean ?SEM) 5863 4/6 962{ 11.160.4 3061.7 13464/7564 231619 19569 117610 192630 4063 4461.0 0.9460.11 31610.4 124666Day 10 N = 10 (standardized IT) (mean ?SEM) ???n. a. 3061.7 12262/7165 15068* 15468* n. a. 166616 n. a. n. a. n. a. n. a. n. a. 3967*Follow up N = 7 (standardized IT) 23115181 (mean ?SEM) ???8.360.4{ 3062.3 13863/8164 146625 163615{ 88613 147641 4564 4460.7 0.8960.11 1967.3 8.

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