Utation was very similar in pTaG1-2 tumours (70.2 ) and pT1G

Utation was very similar in pTaG1-2 tumours (70.2 ) and pT1G2 tumours (64.6 ), but significantly lower in pTaG3 tumours (40.5 ) (x2 test; p = 0.0001). The frequency of FGFR3 Dimethylenastron price mutation was even lower in pT1G3 tumours (20.8 ) and pT2-4 tumours (11.8 ). We then studied the association Benzocaine between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in the five tumour stage/grade categories (table 3). As before, we defined four groups within each category (wild-type FGFR3 plus wild-type TP53, wild-type FGFR3 plus mutated TP53, mutated FGFR3 plus wild-type TP53, mutated FGFR3 plus mutated TP53). Overall, no significant association was detected after adjusting for stage and group (OR = 0.69; 95 CI = 0.44 to 1.08, Mantel-Haenszel test = 0.075) and we detected no statistically significant heterogeneity across strata (p = 0.41 for heterogeneity). FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were considered to be independent events in all categories (Table 3), as the proportion of tumours with mutated TP53 did not differ significantly between the tumours with wild-type and mutated FGFR3 (Table 4). We assessed the robustness of the results, by carrying out the same analysis while accounting for the potential study effect. Similar results were obtained despite the continuity correction required to correct for too small sample sizes in some defined by the combination of stage/grade.DiscussionDue to their inverse distributions as a function of stage and grade and the small number of double-mutated tumours (FGFR3 mutated, TP53 mutated) observed in small series, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations had been reported to be mutually exclusive events, with FGFR3 mutation strongly associated with the Ta pathway and TP53 mutation strongly associated with the CIS pathway [10,11]. The group of Real showed for the first time, in a study of a large series of tumours, that FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events in pT1G3 tumours (n = 119) [12]. Our meta-analysis of 917 tumours (including all published data (535 tumours) plus an additional series of 382 tumours of all stages and grades) confirms and extends the findings of Hernandez et al., by showing that FGFR3 mutations and TP53 mutations are independent events not only in pT1G3 tumours (confirmed here for 260 pT1G3 tumours) but also in pTa, pT1G2 and muscle-invasive tumours (pT 2). By contrast, FGFR3 mutations and TP53 mutations were not independent events if we considered all tumours together, without accounting for stage and grade (p = 0.0001), or all pT1 tumours together (pT1G2 and pT1G3 tumours) (p = 0.0009). The two known pathways of tumour progression and the different frequencies of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in the different groups of tumours defined on the basis of grade and stage may account for these observations. At an early stage (pTaG1 and pTaG2), the frequency of FGFR3 mutation was high in the Ta low-grade pathway, whereas that of TP53 mutation was very low. If these tumours progress to muscle-invasive tumours, they will carry 12926553 TP53 mutations at a frequency similar to that in tumours of the CIS pathway. Indeed, in our meta-analysis, muscle-invasive TP53 mutations were found in 42 of tumoursFigure 3. Combined FGFR3 and TP53 mutation frequencies according to the stage/grade group. Proportion of tumours with both FGFR3 and TP53 mutations (orange), with FGFR3 mutations and wild-type TP53 wild-type (grey), with wild-type FGFR3 and mutated TP53 (purple), or with wild-type FGFR3 and wild-type TP53 (blue), as a function of stage/grade. The number of cases in.Utation was very similar in pTaG1-2 tumours (70.2 ) and pT1G2 tumours (64.6 ), but significantly lower in pTaG3 tumours (40.5 ) (x2 test; p = 0.0001). The frequency of FGFR3 mutation was even lower in pT1G3 tumours (20.8 ) and pT2-4 tumours (11.8 ). We then studied the association between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in the five tumour stage/grade categories (table 3). As before, we defined four groups within each category (wild-type FGFR3 plus wild-type TP53, wild-type FGFR3 plus mutated TP53, mutated FGFR3 plus wild-type TP53, mutated FGFR3 plus mutated TP53). Overall, no significant association was detected after adjusting for stage and group (OR = 0.69; 95 CI = 0.44 to 1.08, Mantel-Haenszel test = 0.075) and we detected no statistically significant heterogeneity across strata (p = 0.41 for heterogeneity). FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were considered to be independent events in all categories (Table 3), as the proportion of tumours with mutated TP53 did not differ significantly between the tumours with wild-type and mutated FGFR3 (Table 4). We assessed the robustness of the results, by carrying out the same analysis while accounting for the potential study effect. Similar results were obtained despite the continuity correction required to correct for too small sample sizes in some defined by the combination of stage/grade.DiscussionDue to their inverse distributions as a function of stage and grade and the small number of double-mutated tumours (FGFR3 mutated, TP53 mutated) observed in small series, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations had been reported to be mutually exclusive events, with FGFR3 mutation strongly associated with the Ta pathway and TP53 mutation strongly associated with the CIS pathway [10,11]. The group of Real showed for the first time, in a study of a large series of tumours, that FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events in pT1G3 tumours (n = 119) [12]. Our meta-analysis of 917 tumours (including all published data (535 tumours) plus an additional series of 382 tumours of all stages and grades) confirms and extends the findings of Hernandez et al., by showing that FGFR3 mutations and TP53 mutations are independent events not only in pT1G3 tumours (confirmed here for 260 pT1G3 tumours) but also in pTa, pT1G2 and muscle-invasive tumours (pT 2). By contrast, FGFR3 mutations and TP53 mutations were not independent events if we considered all tumours together, without accounting for stage and grade (p = 0.0001), or all pT1 tumours together (pT1G2 and pT1G3 tumours) (p = 0.0009). The two known pathways of tumour progression and the different frequencies of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in the different groups of tumours defined on the basis of grade and stage may account for these observations. At an early stage (pTaG1 and pTaG2), the frequency of FGFR3 mutation was high in the Ta low-grade pathway, whereas that of TP53 mutation was very low. If these tumours progress to muscle-invasive tumours, they will carry 12926553 TP53 mutations at a frequency similar to that in tumours of the CIS pathway. Indeed, in our meta-analysis, muscle-invasive TP53 mutations were found in 42 of tumoursFigure 3. Combined FGFR3 and TP53 mutation frequencies according to the stage/grade group. Proportion of tumours with both FGFR3 and TP53 mutations (orange), with FGFR3 mutations and wild-type TP53 wild-type (grey), with wild-type FGFR3 and mutated TP53 (purple), or with wild-type FGFR3 and wild-type TP53 (blue), as a function of stage/grade. The number of cases in.

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