Ction of ,0.8 kcal/mol, the free energy cost of hydrophobic solvation

Ction of ,0.8 kcal/mol, the free energy cost of hydrophobic solvation of the methyl group. A possible explanation for this smaller effect is that the binding of fatty acids to COMPcc is accompanied by a loss of conformational entropy in the aliphatic chain. In other words, when fatty acids bind to COMPcc, the aliphatic chain can not access all its conformational isomers, this entropic loss can partially cancel the gain in free energy due to the hydrophobic effect. Because myristic acid has 14 carbon atoms, the contribution of the hydrophobic effect (this is equivalent to removing seven or eight pairs of carbon atoms) to the binding of myristic acid to COMPcc can be roughly estimated to be between 2.1 kcal/mol and 2.4 kcal/mol. From the Kd value, the free energy of binding of myristic acid to COMPcc can be estimated to be approximately 8.4 kcal/mol. This indicates that the hydrophobic effect contributes about a fourth of the interaction energy of the fatty acid binding. It must also be emphasized that although COMPcc binding causes a loss of conformational entropy in the fatty acid ligands, the COMPcc binding pocket is still relatively flexible. This flexibility is shown by the fact that COMPcc can accommodate the unsaturated stearic, oleic and CPA molecules with only a modest change in the binding constant. Coiled-coil proteins such as COMPcc are attractive buy JSI124 candidates for the design of drug delivery systems [10,28,29,30]. In this work we have studied the hydrophobic binding pocket of COMPcc and have characterized the various interactions that play an important role in the binding of hydrophobic ligands to the protein. The following is a summary of our findings: 1) The COMPcc channel has been shown to be very flexible and this work demonstrates that the protein can accommodate a wide range of ligand geometric variations in its binding pocket. We suggest that a possible reason for this flexibility is the hydration of COMPcc channel in the apo-state. The presence of internal water molecules allows the coiled-coil to participate in “breathing motions” demonstrated by the dynamic opening of the COMPcc channel to accommodate spacious molecules. This remarkable capability is most dramtically illustrated in the COMPcc – vitamin D3 complex, in which the volume of the cavities increases by approximately 30 percent upon binding of the ligand [8]. We intend to study the role of these internal water molecules on the dynamics of the COMPcc channel in future studies. The water chamber as defined by the residues Thr40 and Asn41, seems to play an important role in the ligand binding Pentagastrin web process. Our results indicate that disrupting the water chamber has an adverse effect on binding. Future work will determine the role of these two residues in establishing the water chamber and elucidate the role of the water chamber in ligand binding. We have quantified the contribution of hydrophobicity to the ligand binding process. In the case of the studied fatty acids, only approximately a fourth of the binding free energy is2)3)Binding of Fatty Acids to COMPcontributed by the hydrophobic effect and the rest is mostly due to interactions between the carboxylate head group and the Gln54 ring system. COMPcc is an attractive candidate for the design of a Carrier-Pathfinder-System [10]. It combines unique storage properties for otherwise insoluble signalling molecules with the possibility that a targeting molecule can be attached in order to direct it to a specific locat.Ction of ,0.8 kcal/mol, the free energy cost of hydrophobic solvation of the methyl group. A possible explanation for this smaller effect is that the binding of fatty acids to COMPcc is accompanied by a loss of conformational entropy in the aliphatic chain. In other words, when fatty acids bind to COMPcc, the aliphatic chain can not access all its conformational isomers, this entropic loss can partially cancel the gain in free energy due to the hydrophobic effect. Because myristic acid has 14 carbon atoms, the contribution of the hydrophobic effect (this is equivalent to removing seven or eight pairs of carbon atoms) to the binding of myristic acid to COMPcc can be roughly estimated to be between 2.1 kcal/mol and 2.4 kcal/mol. From the Kd value, the free energy of binding of myristic acid to COMPcc can be estimated to be approximately 8.4 kcal/mol. This indicates that the hydrophobic effect contributes about a fourth of the interaction energy of the fatty acid binding. It must also be emphasized that although COMPcc binding causes a loss of conformational entropy in the fatty acid ligands, the COMPcc binding pocket is still relatively flexible. This flexibility is shown by the fact that COMPcc can accommodate the unsaturated stearic, oleic and CPA molecules with only a modest change in the binding constant. Coiled-coil proteins such as COMPcc are attractive candidates for the design of drug delivery systems [10,28,29,30]. In this work we have studied the hydrophobic binding pocket of COMPcc and have characterized the various interactions that play an important role in the binding of hydrophobic ligands to the protein. The following is a summary of our findings: 1) The COMPcc channel has been shown to be very flexible and this work demonstrates that the protein can accommodate a wide range of ligand geometric variations in its binding pocket. We suggest that a possible reason for this flexibility is the hydration of COMPcc channel in the apo-state. The presence of internal water molecules allows the coiled-coil to participate in “breathing motions” demonstrated by the dynamic opening of the COMPcc channel to accommodate spacious molecules. This remarkable capability is most dramtically illustrated in the COMPcc – vitamin D3 complex, in which the volume of the cavities increases by approximately 30 percent upon binding of the ligand [8]. We intend to study the role of these internal water molecules on the dynamics of the COMPcc channel in future studies. The water chamber as defined by the residues Thr40 and Asn41, seems to play an important role in the ligand binding process. Our results indicate that disrupting the water chamber has an adverse effect on binding. Future work will determine the role of these two residues in establishing the water chamber and elucidate the role of the water chamber in ligand binding. We have quantified the contribution of hydrophobicity to the ligand binding process. In the case of the studied fatty acids, only approximately a fourth of the binding free energy is2)3)Binding of Fatty Acids to COMPcontributed by the hydrophobic effect and the rest is mostly due to interactions between the carboxylate head group and the Gln54 ring system. COMPcc is an attractive candidate for the design of a Carrier-Pathfinder-System [10]. It combines unique storage properties for otherwise insoluble signalling molecules with the possibility that a targeting molecule can be attached in order to direct it to a specific locat.

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