With an Nterminal region that contains the FGF homology domain and

With an Nterminal region that contains the FGF homology domain and a novel 71-amino acid C-terminus. The discovery of FGF-23 revealed a tightly controlled system regulating serum phosphate. This newly discovered regulation of serum phosphate by FGF-23 is independent of PTH or the vitamin D endocrine system. Recent findings identify the skeleton as an endocrine organ and enable several abnormalities of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism to be classified as endocrine diseases [1]. Several studies have confirmed that bone is a primary site of FGF-23 production, although FGF-23 was expressed in the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus in mice [2], and weak FGF-expression was also observed in liver, heart, thymus and lymph nodes [3]. FGF-23 protein is order 3PO detected in human bone by immunohistochemistry [4]. Recent results confirm that FGF-23 is produced by osteocytes in bone, circulates as a hormone and acts on the kidney to influence phosphate metabolism and, hence, bone mineralization [1,5?]. High-phosphate diet increases and low-phosphate diet decreases FGF-23 levels in human subjects [9]. High serum FGF-23 levels are linked to adverse outcomes such as increased mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis [10,11] and to mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease [12]. Higher FGF-23 levels, even in subjects with Indolactam V normal renal function, are associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy [13?17]http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/31/1/219-B12# B12http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/31/1/219-B13#FGF-23 and Insulin ResistanceB13. Interestingly, circulating FGF-23 has also been recently associated with some characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals [18]. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) in association with metabolic parameters such as fat mass, insulin sensitivity, bone mineral density and intima media thickness. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss.Materials and Methods CohortOne hundred and thirty-three subjects (all men) were randomly localized from a census and they were invited to participate. The participation rate was 71 . A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) according to the American Diabetes Association Criteria was performed in all subjects. Inclusion criteria were 1) BMI,40 kg/m2, 2) absence of systemic disease, and 3) absence of infection within the previous month. None of the control subjects were under medication or had evidence of metabolic disease other than obesity. Liver disease and thyroid dysfunction were specifically excluded by biochemical work-up. All subjects had normal serum creatinine levels. Measurements. Subjects were studied in the post-absorptive state. Body weight was measured with a digital scale to the nearest 0.1 kg, and height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm with a Holtain stadiometer (Holtain Ltd., Crymych, UK). Blood pressure was measured in the supine position on the right arm after a 10-min rest; a standard sphygmomanometer of appropriate cuff size was used and the first and fifth phases were recorded. Values used in the analysis are the average of three readings taken at 5-min intervals. Insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) on a different day. In brief.With an Nterminal region that contains the FGF homology domain and a novel 71-amino acid C-terminus. The discovery of FGF-23 revealed a tightly controlled system regulating serum phosphate. This newly discovered regulation of serum phosphate by FGF-23 is independent of PTH or the vitamin D endocrine system. Recent findings identify the skeleton as an endocrine organ and enable several abnormalities of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism to be classified as endocrine diseases [1]. Several studies have confirmed that bone is a primary site of FGF-23 production, although FGF-23 was expressed in the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus in mice [2], and weak FGF-expression was also observed in liver, heart, thymus and lymph nodes [3]. FGF-23 protein is detected in human bone by immunohistochemistry [4]. Recent results confirm that FGF-23 is produced by osteocytes in bone, circulates as a hormone and acts on the kidney to influence phosphate metabolism and, hence, bone mineralization [1,5?]. High-phosphate diet increases and low-phosphate diet decreases FGF-23 levels in human subjects [9]. High serum FGF-23 levels are linked to adverse outcomes such as increased mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis [10,11] and to mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease [12]. Higher FGF-23 levels, even in subjects with normal renal function, are associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy [13?17]http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/31/1/219-B12# B12http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/31/1/219-B13#FGF-23 and Insulin ResistanceB13. Interestingly, circulating FGF-23 has also been recently associated with some characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals [18]. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) in association with metabolic parameters such as fat mass, insulin sensitivity, bone mineral density and intima media thickness. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss.Materials and Methods CohortOne hundred and thirty-three subjects (all men) were randomly localized from a census and they were invited to participate. The participation rate was 71 . A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) according to the American Diabetes Association Criteria was performed in all subjects. Inclusion criteria were 1) BMI,40 kg/m2, 2) absence of systemic disease, and 3) absence of infection within the previous month. None of the control subjects were under medication or had evidence of metabolic disease other than obesity. Liver disease and thyroid dysfunction were specifically excluded by biochemical work-up. All subjects had normal serum creatinine levels. Measurements. Subjects were studied in the post-absorptive state. Body weight was measured with a digital scale to the nearest 0.1 kg, and height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm with a Holtain stadiometer (Holtain Ltd., Crymych, UK). Blood pressure was measured in the supine position on the right arm after a 10-min rest; a standard sphygmomanometer of appropriate cuff size was used and the first and fifth phases were recorded. Values used in the analysis are the average of three readings taken at 5-min intervals. Insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) on a different day. In brief.

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