To controls fed a chow diet (Figure 2A). When Eng+/2 mice

To controls fed a chow diet (Figure 2A). When Eng+/2 mice, fed a chow diet, were subjected to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (ipGTT) after an overnight fasting, we did not find any alteration in the tolerance to glucose as compared to WT littermates (Figure 2B?C). Furthermore, Terlipressin site Insulin tolerance tests (ITT) after an overnight fasting showed that Eng+/2 mice had increased glucose levels after 60 and 90 min of insulin injection (Figure 2D). When integrated (area under the curve)Endoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceFigure 3. Body weight, body composition, food intake, and metabolic parameters in mice fed a high fat diet. Body weight (A), fat mass (B), non-fat mass (C), food intake (D), total energy expenditure (E), energy expenditure corrected by non-fat mass (F), total locomotor activity (G), locomotor activity corrected by non-fat mass (H), respiratory Ergocalciferol quotient during light phase (I), respiratory quotient during dark phase (J), and 48 h profile of RQ (K) in male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. Measurements were done during 48 h. n = 6?. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gglucose levels in Eng+/2 mice fed a chow diet failed to show significant differences compared with WT control mice (Figure 2E).Eng+/2 mice fed a HFD show normal body weight and metabolic phenotypeAge-matched male WT and Eng+/2 mice of 8 weeks of age were maintained on HFD (45 kcal fat, 4.73 kcal/g) for 16 wk to assesstheir metabolic phenotypes. No differences in body weight were found between Eng+/2 and WT mice when they were fed a HFD (Figure 3A). Consistently, body composition analysis with quantitative NMR revealed that Eng+/2 mice fed a HFD gained a similar amount of fat (Figure 3B) and non-fat mass (Figure 3C) compared to WT mice after 16 weeks with HFD. Food intake was also very similar between both genotypes (Figure 3D). Energy expenditure remained unchanged when WT and Eng+/2 miceFigure 4. Glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high fat diet. Basal glucose levels (A), glucose tolerance test (B), respective area under the curve (C), insulin tolerance test ( of glucose levels represented against t0) (D), and respective area under the curve (E) in male wild type (WT) and endoglin heterozygous (HZ) mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. n = 6?. *p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceFigure 5. Insulin signaling and glucose uptake in mice fed a high fat diet. Protein levels of NFkB, pAKT, AKT, and PTEN in the liver (A), and muscle (B) of male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. Protein levels of NFkB, pAKT (Ser473), AKT, PTEN, and Glut4 in the white adipose tissue (C) of male wild type (+/+) and endoglin heterozygous (+/2) mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. All the samples (+/+ and +/2) for each protein were analyzed within the same gel, and the lines represent splicings of the gels. n = 6?. *p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gwere fed a HFD (Figure 3E?F). No changes were observed in the total locomotor activity between WT and Eng+/2 mice (Figure 3G). A similar result was observed when locomotor activity was corrected by grams of non-fat mass (Figure 3H). The RQ didnot show any statistical difference during the light (Figure 3I and 3K) or dark phase (Figure 3J and 3K).Glucose homeostasis in Eng+/2 mice fed a.To controls fed a chow diet (Figure 2A). When Eng+/2 mice, fed a chow diet, were subjected to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (ipGTT) after an overnight fasting, we did not find any alteration in the tolerance to glucose as compared to WT littermates (Figure 2B?C). Furthermore, insulin tolerance tests (ITT) after an overnight fasting showed that Eng+/2 mice had increased glucose levels after 60 and 90 min of insulin injection (Figure 2D). When integrated (area under the curve)Endoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceFigure 3. Body weight, body composition, food intake, and metabolic parameters in mice fed a high fat diet. Body weight (A), fat mass (B), non-fat mass (C), food intake (D), total energy expenditure (E), energy expenditure corrected by non-fat mass (F), total locomotor activity (G), locomotor activity corrected by non-fat mass (H), respiratory quotient during light phase (I), respiratory quotient during dark phase (J), and 48 h profile of RQ (K) in male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. Measurements were done during 48 h. n = 6?. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gglucose levels in Eng+/2 mice fed a chow diet failed to show significant differences compared with WT control mice (Figure 2E).Eng+/2 mice fed a HFD show normal body weight and metabolic phenotypeAge-matched male WT and Eng+/2 mice of 8 weeks of age were maintained on HFD (45 kcal fat, 4.73 kcal/g) for 16 wk to assesstheir metabolic phenotypes. No differences in body weight were found between Eng+/2 and WT mice when they were fed a HFD (Figure 3A). Consistently, body composition analysis with quantitative NMR revealed that Eng+/2 mice fed a HFD gained a similar amount of fat (Figure 3B) and non-fat mass (Figure 3C) compared to WT mice after 16 weeks with HFD. Food intake was also very similar between both genotypes (Figure 3D). Energy expenditure remained unchanged when WT and Eng+/2 miceFigure 4. Glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high fat diet. Basal glucose levels (A), glucose tolerance test (B), respective area under the curve (C), insulin tolerance test ( of glucose levels represented against t0) (D), and respective area under the curve (E) in male wild type (WT) and endoglin heterozygous (HZ) mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. n = 6?. *p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceEndoglin and Diet-Induced Insulin ResistanceFigure 5. Insulin signaling and glucose uptake in mice fed a high fat diet. Protein levels of NFkB, pAKT, AKT, and PTEN in the liver (A), and muscle (B) of male wild type and endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. Protein levels of NFkB, pAKT (Ser473), AKT, PTEN, and Glut4 in the white adipose tissue (C) of male wild type (+/+) and endoglin heterozygous (+/2) mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. All the samples (+/+ and +/2) for each protein were analyzed within the same gel, and the lines represent splicings of the gels. n = 6?. *p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054591.gwere fed a HFD (Figure 3E?F). No changes were observed in the total locomotor activity between WT and Eng+/2 mice (Figure 3G). A similar result was observed when locomotor activity was corrected by grams of non-fat mass (Figure 3H). The RQ didnot show any statistical difference during the light (Figure 3I and 3K) or dark phase (Figure 3J and 3K).Glucose homeostasis in Eng+/2 mice fed a.

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