It is estimated that more than a single million adults BFA web within the UK are at the moment living with all the long-term consequences of brain injuries (Headway, 2014b). Rates of ABI have enhanced significantly in current years, with estimated increases more than ten years ranging from 33 per cent (Headway, 2014b) to 95 per cent (HSCIC, 2012). This improve is as a result of several different factors such as enhanced emergency response following injury (Powell, 2004); much more cyclists interacting with heavier website traffic flow; elevated participation in unsafe sports; and bigger numbers of quite old men and women within the population. As outlined by Good (2014), the most popular causes of ABI in the UK are falls (22 ?43 per cent), assaults (30 ?50 per cent) and road visitors accidents (circa 25 per cent), though the latter category accounts to get a disproportionate variety of additional severe brain injuries; other causes of ABI include sports injuries and domestic violence. Brain injury is much more prevalent amongst males than girls and shows peaks at ages fifteen to thirty and over eighty (Good, 2014). International data show comparable patterns. As an example, within the USA, the Centre for Illness Handle estimates that ABI impacts 1.7 million Americans every single year; young children aged from birth to 4, older teenagers and adults aged more than sixty-five possess the highest rates of ABI, with guys a lot more susceptible than girls across all age ranges (CDC, undated, Traumatic Brain Injury inside the Usa: Truth Sheet, accessible on the net at www.cdc.gov/ traumaticbraininjury/get_the_facts.html, accessed December 2014). There’s also increasing awareness and concern inside the USA about ABI amongst military personnel (see, e.g. Okie, 2005), with ABI prices reported to exceed onefifth of combatants (Okie, 2005; Terrio et al., 2009). Whilst this short article will concentrate on current UK policy and practice, the problems which it highlights are relevant to lots of national contexts.Acquired Brain Injury, Social Operate and PersonalisationIf the causes of ABI are wide-ranging and unevenly distributed across age and gender, the impacts of ABI are similarly diverse. A number of people make an excellent recovery from their brain injury, while other people are left with considerable ongoing troubles. In addition, as Headway (2014b) cautions, the `initial diagnosis of severity of injury will not be a reputable indicator of long-term problems’. The prospective impacts of ABI are well described each in (non-social operate) academic literature (e.g. Fleminger and Ponsford, 2005) and in private accounts (e.g. Crimmins, 2001; Perry, 1986). However, given the restricted consideration to ABI in social function literature, it truly is worth 10508619.2011.638589 listing a few of the prevalent after-effects: physical troubles, cognitive difficulties, impairment of executive functioning, modifications to a person’s behaviour and modifications to emotional regulation and `personality’. For a lot of persons with ABI, there might be no physical indicators of impairment, but some might expertise a array of physical issues which includes `loss of co-ordination, muscle rigidity, paralysis, epilepsy, difficulty in speaking, loss of sight, smell or taste, fatigue, and sexual problems’ (Headway, 2014b), with fatigue and headaches becoming especially common following cognitive activity. ABI might also cause cognitive difficulties which include complications with journal.pone.0169185 memory and lowered speed of data processing by the brain. These physical and cognitive elements of ABI, while challenging for the individual concerned, are fairly easy for social workers and other individuals to conceptuali.