Iol-filled Silastic tubing. Placebo pellets composed of cholesterol and other “inert

Iol-filled Silastic tubing. Placebo pellets composed of cholesterol and other “inert” ingredients (personal communication) were purchased to use as controls. All implants were inserted in the midscapular region immediately after ovariectomy to reduce alterations in the physiology of the animal, such as the increase in appetite, weight and anxiety among others. Surgical procedures To eliminate the main endogenous source of plasma estradiol and thus control for estradiol cyclical variability, animals were bilaterally ovariectomized. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine (87.5 mg/kg) and xylazine (4.2 mg/kg) diluted in 0.9 sterile saline and administered intraperitoneally. The procedure was performed under aseptic and sterile conditions. Briefly, the anesthetized rat was placed on its ventral Pan-RAS-IN-1 supplier surface and the ovaries were removed via a 1 cm incision on the dorsum of the animal caudal to the posterolateral border of the ribs. The fascia was separated from the skin and a 7 mm incision was made in the muscle to gain access to the peritoneal cavity. The oviducts were clamped, ligated and the ovaries removed. The muscle was then sutured and the skin incision closed with staples. Immediately after removal of the ovaries, the empty or estradiol filled Silastic tubes, as well as the placebo or estradiol pellets, were placed subcutaneously in the midscapular region and the skin sealed with a clamp. Animal groups and treatment Female rats were divided into 9 groups. Our first group, gonadally intact rats, served as a control, they represented a group of gonadally intact female rats with plasma estradiol fluctuating throughout their estrous cycle. The second control group, ovariectomized, was comprised of rats that had both their ovaries removed; these represent rats devoid of ovarian plasma estradiol. The third control group, ovariectomized with an empty Silastic implant, was a control for ovariectomized rats that received a Silastic implants with 3, 4 or 5 mg of estradiol (Groups 5-7). The fourth group, ovariectomized rats with a cholesterol pellet, served as a control for ovariectomized rats that received a commercial buy LY294002 pellet of 3 or 4 mg of estradiol dissolved in cholesterol. Groups 5 to 9 were experimental groups, designed to evaluate two methods of estradiol replacement and determine which provided the most consistent method of estradiol delivery. These were ovariectomized rats that received a Silastic implant of 3, 4 or 5 mg of estradiol benzoate (Groups 5-7) and ovariectomized rats that received an estradiol pellet with 3 or 4 mg of estradiol (Groups 8 and 9). Below is a list of these groups: Group 1: Gonadally intact rats. Group 2: Ovariectomized. Groups 3: Ovariectomized that received an empty Silastic implant. Group 4: Ovariectomized that received a pellet containing cholesterol. Group 5: Ovariectomized that received 3 mg of estradiol in a Silastic implant. Group 6: Ovariectomized that received 4 mg of estradiol in a Silastic implant.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ Vet Sci Technol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 March 07.Mosquera et al.PageGroup 7: Ovariectomized that received 5 mg of estradiol in a Silastic implant.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptGroup 8: Ovariectomized that received a 3 mg estradiol pellet. Group 9: Ovariectomized that received a 4 mg estradiol pellet. Animal weight determination To obtain a physiological measurement of the effectiven.Iol-filled Silastic tubing. Placebo pellets composed of cholesterol and other “inert” ingredients (personal communication) were purchased to use as controls. All implants were inserted in the midscapular region immediately after ovariectomy to reduce alterations in the physiology of the animal, such as the increase in appetite, weight and anxiety among others. Surgical procedures To eliminate the main endogenous source of plasma estradiol and thus control for estradiol cyclical variability, animals were bilaterally ovariectomized. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine (87.5 mg/kg) and xylazine (4.2 mg/kg) diluted in 0.9 sterile saline and administered intraperitoneally. The procedure was performed under aseptic and sterile conditions. Briefly, the anesthetized rat was placed on its ventral surface and the ovaries were removed via a 1 cm incision on the dorsum of the animal caudal to the posterolateral border of the ribs. The fascia was separated from the skin and a 7 mm incision was made in the muscle to gain access to the peritoneal cavity. The oviducts were clamped, ligated and the ovaries removed. The muscle was then sutured and the skin incision closed with staples. Immediately after removal of the ovaries, the empty or estradiol filled Silastic tubes, as well as the placebo or estradiol pellets, were placed subcutaneously in the midscapular region and the skin sealed with a clamp. Animal groups and treatment Female rats were divided into 9 groups. Our first group, gonadally intact rats, served as a control, they represented a group of gonadally intact female rats with plasma estradiol fluctuating throughout their estrous cycle. The second control group, ovariectomized, was comprised of rats that had both their ovaries removed; these represent rats devoid of ovarian plasma estradiol. The third control group, ovariectomized with an empty Silastic implant, was a control for ovariectomized rats that received a Silastic implants with 3, 4 or 5 mg of estradiol (Groups 5-7). The fourth group, ovariectomized rats with a cholesterol pellet, served as a control for ovariectomized rats that received a commercial pellet of 3 or 4 mg of estradiol dissolved in cholesterol. Groups 5 to 9 were experimental groups, designed to evaluate two methods of estradiol replacement and determine which provided the most consistent method of estradiol delivery. These were ovariectomized rats that received a Silastic implant of 3, 4 or 5 mg of estradiol benzoate (Groups 5-7) and ovariectomized rats that received an estradiol pellet with 3 or 4 mg of estradiol (Groups 8 and 9). Below is a list of these groups: Group 1: Gonadally intact rats. Group 2: Ovariectomized. Groups 3: Ovariectomized that received an empty Silastic implant. Group 4: Ovariectomized that received a pellet containing cholesterol. Group 5: Ovariectomized that received 3 mg of estradiol in a Silastic implant. Group 6: Ovariectomized that received 4 mg of estradiol in a Silastic implant.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ Vet Sci Technol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 March 07.Mosquera et al.PageGroup 7: Ovariectomized that received 5 mg of estradiol in a Silastic implant.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptGroup 8: Ovariectomized that received a 3 mg estradiol pellet. Group 9: Ovariectomized that received a 4 mg estradiol pellet. Animal weight determination To obtain a physiological measurement of the effectiven.

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