Hungary. Julita liwarska20 and Malgorzata Gabrowska20, Starogard Diaverum Clinic, Starogard, Poland.

Hungary. Julita liwarska20 and Malgorzata Gabrowska20, Starogard Diaverum Clinic, Starogard, Poland. Rodica Illies21, Bistrita Diaverum Clinic, Bistrita, Romania. Lidia Florescu22, Targu Jiu Diaverum Clinic, Targu Jiu, Romania. Eniko Bodurian23, Odorheiu Secuiesc Diaverum Clinic, Odorheiu, Romania. Eugenia Railean24, Medias Diaverum Clinic, Medias, Romania. Ildiko Cs z 25, H mezv hely Diaverum Clinic, H mezv hely, Hungary. Erzs et Varga26, Kalocsa Diaverum Clinic, Kalocsa, Hungary. Cristina Teodoru27 and Elena Agapi27, Sibiu Morilor Diaverum Clinic, Sibiu, Romania. Magdalena Birecka28, Warszawa Bialobrzeska Diaverum Clinic, Warsaw, Poland.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: BM JCDF. Performed the experiments: JO MT DT AO AK AC DM DK JR. Analyzed the data: BM ARQ JCDF. Contributed reagents/materials/ analysis tools: BM JO MT DT AO AK AC DM DK JR ARQ JCDF. Wrote the paper: BM ARQPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987 May 26,11 /Referral, Modality and Dialysis Start in an International SettingJCDF. Coordination at Poland: JO. Coordination at Romania: DT. Coordination at Hungary: MT. U0126 chemical information Global coordination: BM. Study monitoring: BM.
Malnutrition as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) refers to a deficiency of nutrition[1] whilst cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying cancer and characterized by loss of muscle with or without fat mass[2,3]. It is widely acknowledged that both malnutrition and cachexia are under diagnosed and under treated in patients with cancer[4?]. Their prevalence varies largely depending on evaluation criteria and has been estimated to range up to as high as 85 in all cancer patients[3,7?0] Malnutrition and cachexia have been shown to be a predictors of risk of toxicity to chemotherapy, impaired quality of life and mortality[3,11?6]. In addition, the experience of weight loss by patients with advanced cancer is distressing for it is viewed as symbolizing proximity of death, loss of control and weakness both emotionally and physically[17]. The elderly patient is particularly prone to inadequate nutritional intake because of factors such as concomitant chronic diseases, polypharmacy, decreased mobility, social changes as well as age related physiological changes[18]. It is a general consensus that malnutrition or cachexia should ideally be recognised in the earlier phase of anti-cancer therapy which offers a window of opportunity for intervention[3]. Early identification of elderly patients at nutritional risk would allow for a quick and timely referral to an appropriately trained purchase PD98059 professional for a comprehensive nutritional assessment and targeted nutritional intervention which is more likely to be effective before pronounce metabolic deficiencies render them resistant[3]. Evidence based guidelines for the management of elderly patients with cancer recommends a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) to detect unrecognised problems and improve function as well as outcomes[19]. Nutritional assessment is an important component of the CGA. A complete nutritional assessment is complex and usually performed by an appropriately trained professional such as a dietician. An in depth assessment would involve clinical, physical, psychological considerations in addition to anthropometry, biochemical and haematological assessments[8]. This would not be practical for day to day use given the time and manpower constraint of a busy oncology practice. Nutritional screen.Hungary. Julita liwarska20 and Malgorzata Gabrowska20, Starogard Diaverum Clinic, Starogard, Poland. Rodica Illies21, Bistrita Diaverum Clinic, Bistrita, Romania. Lidia Florescu22, Targu Jiu Diaverum Clinic, Targu Jiu, Romania. Eniko Bodurian23, Odorheiu Secuiesc Diaverum Clinic, Odorheiu, Romania. Eugenia Railean24, Medias Diaverum Clinic, Medias, Romania. Ildiko Cs z 25, H mezv hely Diaverum Clinic, H mezv hely, Hungary. Erzs et Varga26, Kalocsa Diaverum Clinic, Kalocsa, Hungary. Cristina Teodoru27 and Elena Agapi27, Sibiu Morilor Diaverum Clinic, Sibiu, Romania. Magdalena Birecka28, Warszawa Bialobrzeska Diaverum Clinic, Warsaw, Poland.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: BM JCDF. Performed the experiments: JO MT DT AO AK AC DM DK JR. Analyzed the data: BM ARQ JCDF. Contributed reagents/materials/ analysis tools: BM JO MT DT AO AK AC DM DK JR ARQ JCDF. Wrote the paper: BM ARQPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987 May 26,11 /Referral, Modality and Dialysis Start in an International SettingJCDF. Coordination at Poland: JO. Coordination at Romania: DT. Coordination at Hungary: MT. Global coordination: BM. Study monitoring: BM.
Malnutrition as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) refers to a deficiency of nutrition[1] whilst cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying cancer and characterized by loss of muscle with or without fat mass[2,3]. It is widely acknowledged that both malnutrition and cachexia are under diagnosed and under treated in patients with cancer[4?]. Their prevalence varies largely depending on evaluation criteria and has been estimated to range up to as high as 85 in all cancer patients[3,7?0] Malnutrition and cachexia have been shown to be a predictors of risk of toxicity to chemotherapy, impaired quality of life and mortality[3,11?6]. In addition, the experience of weight loss by patients with advanced cancer is distressing for it is viewed as symbolizing proximity of death, loss of control and weakness both emotionally and physically[17]. The elderly patient is particularly prone to inadequate nutritional intake because of factors such as concomitant chronic diseases, polypharmacy, decreased mobility, social changes as well as age related physiological changes[18]. It is a general consensus that malnutrition or cachexia should ideally be recognised in the earlier phase of anti-cancer therapy which offers a window of opportunity for intervention[3]. Early identification of elderly patients at nutritional risk would allow for a quick and timely referral to an appropriately trained professional for a comprehensive nutritional assessment and targeted nutritional intervention which is more likely to be effective before pronounce metabolic deficiencies render them resistant[3]. Evidence based guidelines for the management of elderly patients with cancer recommends a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) to detect unrecognised problems and improve function as well as outcomes[19]. Nutritional assessment is an important component of the CGA. A complete nutritional assessment is complex and usually performed by an appropriately trained professional such as a dietician. An in depth assessment would involve clinical, physical, psychological considerations in addition to anthropometry, biochemical and haematological assessments[8]. This would not be practical for day to day use given the time and manpower constraint of a busy oncology practice. Nutritional screen.

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