Arly favorable settlement conditions (e.g., along common trade routes and

Arly favorable settlement conditions (e.g., along common trade routes and near large bodies of water) led to increased populations [12]. Throughout the 10th century and the beginning of the 11th, Giecz functioned as a major residential, political, economic, and military hub. It was located along a main trade route frequented by representatives of the Piast dynasty, including an associated strong military presence and others of qhw.v5i4.5120 elite status (e.g., clergymen, bishops, etc.). In A.D. 1038, invasion by Bzetislav I (duke of Bohemia) resulted in Giecz inhabitants becoming prisoners and sent toPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129458 June 11,2 /Trauma Leupeptin (hemisulfate) web Patterns in Medieval PolandFig 1. Medieval map of Wielkopolska, Poland. The map is based on Magocsi [13], showing locations of 4 major centers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129458.gCzech territories [14]. Although Giecz was re-inhabited by the end of the 11th century, this exile seems to mark the collapse of Giecz as a major center for the exchange of ideas and goods. Giecz struggled to recover, and by the 13th century became virtually obsolete in a political and economic sense [15], although the inhabitants endured by engaging in mostly farming and trade activities in the feudal economic and social system existing there [16, 17]. On the other hand, communities in contemporaneous stronghold sites (e.g., Pozna) continued trends of urbanization for centuries. Initially, following the adoption of Christianity, Pozna was the sole bishopric in the country [11], although other bishoprics were established later. In addition, Pozna became one of several “castle-towns” or gr s, where local representatives of Mieszko resided, accompanied by a military garrison. As urbanization and economic and political centralization increased during this time, more individuals migrated to urban centers from surrounding rural areas, abandoning their agricultural pursuits to engage in a particular trade as the demand for consumer goods and services increased. Mieszko developed a system of services in the mid-10th century in response to this demand. Cobblers, bakers, cooks, shield makers and others were allPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129458 June 11,3 /Trauma Patterns in Medieval Polandpart of burgeoning craft Duvoglustat price specialization in the region, with permanently established trades for artisans and servants [18]. Archaeological evidence indicates trades such as metallurgy, tanning, shoemaking, glass working, pottery making, and stonecutting were part of the specialization 1.07839E+15 in this area. Migration from rural settlements into Pozna became commonplace, its population size steadily increased, and it was exclusively deemed an urban center with a society predominantly comprising clergy and craftsmen [19]. Pozna was eventually known as a civitas, or provincial center due to its prominence in the region, and a commodity-money economy was established [18]. The craft specialization that developed there may have presented different types of trauma risks than that of agricultural settings, owing to the different types of tasks in which the population was engaged. Performing specialized tasks on a daily basis may have allowed such individuals to perfect their approach with less risk for errors, and, perhaps, accidents. Nonetheless, injuries would have still been a risk, albeit of a potentially different type or from a different source, than in agricultural tasks. Human skeletal remains evaluated for the presence of traumatic injuries in.Arly favorable settlement conditions (e.g., along common trade routes and near large bodies of water) led to increased populations [12]. Throughout the 10th century and the beginning of the 11th, Giecz functioned as a major residential, political, economic, and military hub. It was located along a main trade route frequented by representatives of the Piast dynasty, including an associated strong military presence and others of qhw.v5i4.5120 elite status (e.g., clergymen, bishops, etc.). In A.D. 1038, invasion by Bzetislav I (duke of Bohemia) resulted in Giecz inhabitants becoming prisoners and sent toPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129458 June 11,2 /Trauma Patterns in Medieval PolandFig 1. Medieval map of Wielkopolska, Poland. The map is based on Magocsi [13], showing locations of 4 major centers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129458.gCzech territories [14]. Although Giecz was re-inhabited by the end of the 11th century, this exile seems to mark the collapse of Giecz as a major center for the exchange of ideas and goods. Giecz struggled to recover, and by the 13th century became virtually obsolete in a political and economic sense [15], although the inhabitants endured by engaging in mostly farming and trade activities in the feudal economic and social system existing there [16, 17]. On the other hand, communities in contemporaneous stronghold sites (e.g., Pozna) continued trends of urbanization for centuries. Initially, following the adoption of Christianity, Pozna was the sole bishopric in the country [11], although other bishoprics were established later. In addition, Pozna became one of several “castle-towns” or gr s, where local representatives of Mieszko resided, accompanied by a military garrison. As urbanization and economic and political centralization increased during this time, more individuals migrated to urban centers from surrounding rural areas, abandoning their agricultural pursuits to engage in a particular trade as the demand for consumer goods and services increased. Mieszko developed a system of services in the mid-10th century in response to this demand. Cobblers, bakers, cooks, shield makers and others were allPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129458 June 11,3 /Trauma Patterns in Medieval Polandpart of burgeoning craft specialization in the region, with permanently established trades for artisans and servants [18]. Archaeological evidence indicates trades such as metallurgy, tanning, shoemaking, glass working, pottery making, and stonecutting were part of the specialization 1.07839E+15 in this area. Migration from rural settlements into Pozna became commonplace, its population size steadily increased, and it was exclusively deemed an urban center with a society predominantly comprising clergy and craftsmen [19]. Pozna was eventually known as a civitas, or provincial center due to its prominence in the region, and a commodity-money economy was established [18]. The craft specialization that developed there may have presented different types of trauma risks than that of agricultural settings, owing to the different types of tasks in which the population was engaged. Performing specialized tasks on a daily basis may have allowed such individuals to perfect their approach with less risk for errors, and, perhaps, accidents. Nonetheless, injuries would have still been a risk, albeit of a potentially different type or from a different source, than in agricultural tasks. Human skeletal remains evaluated for the presence of traumatic injuries in.

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