N P, Abecasis AB, Deforche K et al (2013) Automated subtyping of
N P, Abecasis AB, Deforche K et al (2013) Automated subtyping of HIV-1 genetic sequences for clinical and surveillance purposes: performance evaluation of the new REGA version 3 and seven other tools. Infect Genet Evol. 19(126):337?48 57. Leisner C, Loeth N, Lamberth K, Justesen S, Sylvester-Hvid C, Schmidt EG et al (2008) One-pot, mix-and-read peptide-MHC tetramers. PLoS One 3(2):e1678 58. Williams I, Churchill D, Anderson J, Boffito M, Bower M, Cairns G et al (2014) British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2012 (Updated November 2013. All changed text is cast in yellow highlight.). HIV Med 15(Suppl 1):1?Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take full advantage of:?Convenient online submission ?Thorough peer review ?No space constraints or color figure charges ?Immediate publication on acceptance ?Inclusion in PubMed, CAS, Scopus and Google Scholar ?Research which is freely available for redistributionSubmit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit
Hizi and Herzig Retrovirology (2015)12:70 DOI 10.1186/s12977-015-0198-REVIEWOpen AccessdUTPase: the frequently overlooked enzyme encoded by many retrovirusesAmnon Hizi* and Eytan HerzigAbstract Retroviruses are among the best studied viruses in last decades due to their pivotal involvement in cellular processes and, most importantly, in causing human diseases, most notably–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is triggered by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively). Numerous studied were conducted to understand the involvement of the three cardinal retroviral enzymes, reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease, in the life cycle of the viruses. These studies have led to the development of many inhibitors of these enzymes as anti-retroviral specific drugs that are used for routine treatments of HIV/AIDS patients. Interestingly, a fourth virus-encoded enzyme, the deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) is also found in several major retroviral groups. The presence and the importance of this enzyme to the life cycle of retroviruses were usually overlooked by most retrovirologists, although the occurrence of dUTPases, particularly in beta-retroviruses and in non-primate retroviruses, is known for more than 20 years. Only more recently, retroviral dUTPases were brought into the limelight and were shown in several cases to be essential for viral replication. Therefore, it is likely that future studies on this enzyme will advance our knowledge to a level that will allow designing novel, specific and potent anti-dUTPase drugs that are effective in combating retroviral diseases. The aim of this review is to give concise background information on dUTPases in general and to summarize the most relevant data on retroviral dUTPases PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100631 and their involvement in the replication processes and pathogenicity of the viruses, as well as in possibly-associated human diseases. Keywords: dUTPase, Retroviruses, Reverse transcription, dUTP, Mutagenesis, Beta-retroviruses, Non-primate and primate Brefeldin A web lentiviruses, HIV, Endogenous retroviruses Background PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29072704 The hallmark of all retroviruses is their replication strategy that relies on two critical steps. The first is the reverse transcription of the viral plus strand RNA into linear double-stranded DNA that is catalyzed by the viral reverse transcriptase (RT). The second step occurs when the synthesized DNA is subsequently integrate.

Leave a Reply