Mon type diagnosed in North and South America, Europe and Asia
Mon type diagnosed in North and South America, Europe and Asia is transitional cell carcinoma, which is mainly non-schistosomal bladder tumors, followed by squamous cell carcinoma which is found more in geographical regions where schistosomiasis is prevalent [1]. One of the conditions leads to bladder cancer in Africa, the Middle East and Asia is schistosomiasis [5]. Schistosoma haematobium is the most predominant species in the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, and the most implicated in the schistosomal bladder tumors in these regions [6]. No prospective study measuring the risk of developing bladder cancer in infected and uninfected persons is yet available. Although differences in relative frequencies?2011 Metwally et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Metwally et al. Cancer Cell International 2011, 11:8 http://www.cancerci.com/content/11/1/Page 2 ofmay reflect differences in risk, the interplay of other factors, such as geopolitical variations in case finding, can result in spurious differences and erroneous associations. If the postulated association is correct, one of several conditions must obtain: the worm (1) produces a carcinogen, (2) carries a virus, or (3) is cocarcinogenic to some other insult. In this case, there are many unanswered questions regarding geographic differences in vesical cancer observed PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28381880 where schistosomiasis is endemic. These range from whether there is geographic uniformity in the host’s reaction to infection to whether other environmental variables (such as the bright food coloring used in the candy popular in the Nile delta) interact and are additionally responsible for vesical neoplasia [7]. There is some evidence suggesting that oxidative stress and bladder cancer are closely related [8,9]. Inherent oxidative stress may affect several functions in cancer cells or tumor tissue such as cell proliferation, promotion of mutations and genetic instability, alterations in cellular sensitivity to anticancer agents, invasion, and metastasis [10]. Hydroxyl radicals, peroxides and superoxides are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated during everyday metabolic processes in a normal cell. ROS generated either endogenously (mitochondria, metabolic process, inflammation etc.) or from external sources play a vital role in regulating several biologic phenomena [11]. While increased ROS generation has traditionally been associated with tissue injury or damage of many different biomolecules including DNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which are general manifestations of pathological conditions associated with infection, aging, mitochondrial DNA mutations and cellular SKF-96365 (hydrochloride) msds proliferation [12-14]. Thus, excessive production of ROS or inadequacy in a normal cell’s anti-oxidant defense system (or both) can cause the cell to experience oxidative stress and the increased ROS may play a broader role in cellular process associated with initiation and development of cancers [15]. In view of the above information, the objective of this study was undertaken to investigate some key findings relevant to ROS stress in bilharzial and non bilharzial bladder cancer compared to control healthy patients. The investigated parameters in serum including xanthine oxidase.

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