Lative to the preceding training session. Thus, overall, each training session
Lative to the preceding training session. Thus, overall, each training session lasted 60 minutes including 1RM assessments and 3 sets of 10 repetitions of each of four exercises. This was similar to a protocol used elsewhere in previous research [28], designed to ensure muscle damage would occur.Strength Assessmentpilot study (full knee extension = 0?. Participants were seated on the isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex; Phoenix Healthcare Products, Nottingham, UK), which was calibrated prior to testing. The right knee was positioned so that the epicondylus laterallis was aligned to the centre of rotation of the motor arm. Straps were then positioned across the shoulder/chest, and over the right thigh to prevent any extraneous movement. Force application against the lever arm of the dynamometer was carried out with placement of the appropriate attachment set at a relative 80 of the lower leg length distally from the lateral condyle of the tibia. Participants were permitted a warm-up, which included five sub-maximal repetitions of knee flexions and extensions of the right limb at 100 s. Testing included three trials, with 2 minutes rest between efforts, for both isometric and isokinetic conditions with peak knee extension torque used as the participant’s strength score. Both visual and auditory feedback were used to encourage maximal efforts.Blood Collection and IL-6 detectionMaximal isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) knee extension were measured on the right leg for all participants. Measurements were assessed at 65? and 180 s-1 as these were optimal knee angle and velocity for peak torque as demonstrated PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27597769 during theParticipants fasted for eight hours prior to blood ML240MedChemExpress ML240 samples being taken from the anticubital vein of the forearm by a trained phlebotomist using a 21 ml gauge needle (S-Monovette, Sarstedt, Germany). Five millimetres of blood were taken and allowed to clot whilst standing for one hour on ice. The samples were then centrifuged (Hermle Z 380, Huddersfield) in 5 at 4000 RPM for 10 minutes to separate the serum from the blood cells. Two aliquots ( 900 l each) of the resulting sera samples were taken and stored at -20 for later analysis. IL-6 (R D Systems inc. Minneapolis, USA. Sensitivity < 0.7 pg/ml; Intra-assay variability of 2.6 ) concentrations were quantified using a standard ELISA (enzyme linked immuno sorbant assays) procedure.Statistical AnalysesFigure 1 Resistance exercise, A – leg flexion, B – leg extension, C – straight leg dead lifts, D – walking lunges (Authorised use of photos from a study participant, personal communication, April 26 2010).Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, IL) version 18. The data on strength, IL-6 levels and changes in circulating IL-6 relative to baseline fulfilled the criteria for parametricity. IL-6 levels and relative changes (i.e. T1 = B2-B1/B1, T2 = S1-B1/B1 and T3 = S3-B1/B1) as well as strength data were analysed using a mixed design repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The `Within’ factor was the protocol phase which had four levels (B1, B2, S1 and S3) and the `between’ factor was the treatment group with two levels (EPA treated vs. placebo). Post hoc tests were conducted with appropriate Bonferonni corrections. RPE data, as it was non parametric, was analysed within groups using a Friedman’s test, followed by Wilcoxon signed-rank post-hoc tests. Between groups comparisons of RPE data were run using theH.

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