And CNS foams, also because of the unique viscosity in the blended starch batters. Also, the thermal stability on the blended starch foam was decrease than NS foam, likely as a result of presence of ester bonds with low thermal stability, while the stabilizing effect on the larger degree of cross-linking and sturdy hydrogen bonds in the citric acid-modified starch may well explain the drastically slower water evaporation and decomposition price of NS/CNS blend chains. Within the very same vein, the morphology and the physical, flexural, and thermal properties of cassava starch foams for packaging applications were researched as a function of cotton fiber and concentrated natural rubber latex (CNRL) content material . The key objectives had been to resolve their two major weaknesses, i.e., lack of flexibility and sensitivity to moisture. Cotton fiber was principally added as a reinforcing material. A comparison among SEM micrographs of starch biofoams, both with and with no cotton fiber, showed a sandwichtype structure. Having said that, right after the addition of cotton fibers, the foam exhibited denser structures, thicker cell walls, as well as a decrease region porosity (43.37 in comparison with 52.60 ). It seems that cotton fiber presence decreased the chain mobility of starch by means of hydrogen bonding, resulting inside a high viscosity of the starch batter and significantly less expansion in the foam. CNRL helped to handle moisture into cassava starch foam. As CNRL content material rose, the moisture adsorption capacity on the foam declined (-73.four and -41.78 at 0 and one hundred RH, respectively). This could possibly be because of the hydrophobicity increment in the foam. Foam flexural properties had been also tuned by regulating CNRL content material. For example, with an quantity of two.5 phr of CNRL, the elongation of your biofoam improved by 24 , even though the bending modulus decreased by two.two . An intriguing study carried out by the identical investigation group involved a soil burial test that assessed the biodegradability with the cotton-fiber-reinforcedAppl. Sci. 2021, 11,16 ofcassava starch foam. They found that the degradation mostly progresses by hydrolysis and is delayed by the addition of CNRL. Sunflower proteins and cellulose fibers were also added to cassava starch to produce biodegradable food packaging trays via a baking approach . The study was focused around the relationship between the proportions of these 3 components and their impact on microstructure, physicochemical and mechanical properties from the trays. The outcomes showed that increasing the fiber concentration from 10 to 20 (w/w) raised the water Bopindolol site absorption capacity on the material by a minimum of 15 , though mechanical properties have been enhanced. Around the contrary, a rise in sunflower proteins as much as 20 (w/w) decreased the water absorption capacity along with the relative deformation from the trays to 43 and 21 , respectively. The formulation that exhibited a additional compact, homogeneous, and dense microstructure, with maximal resistance (6.57 MPa) and 38 reduction in water absorption capacity, contained 20 fiber and ten protein isolate. This optimized material presented the most beneficial mechanical properties, decrease water absorption, a decrease thickness, along with a larger density. Likewise, Mello and Mali  employed the baking process to produce biodegradable foam trays by mixing malt bagasse with cassava starch. The concentration of malt bagasse varied from 00 (w/w) along with the microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of foams were assessed. The trays had an amorphous structure because of a fantastic.