Re the other blue-green algae regularly employed in phycobiliproteins research because of their higher nutritional values, and they may be extensively commercialized. Synechocystis has received interest in modeling research and biotechnological applications because of a number of qualities such as its rapid development, the possible to fix carbon dioxide into worthwhile solutions, along with the relative simplicity of genetic modification . Despite Synechocystis, the Nostoc genus is employed as a food and feed supplement in Mongolia, China, and South America . Nostoc commune has lengthy been recognized as a worldwide nutritious meal and regular medicine . A wide number of notably pharmacological and protective physiological properties from the Nostoc genus aroused the Orexin A manufacturer attention of researchers . However, the amount of algae usually claimed as toxic genera (Microcystis, Anabaena, Phormidium, and Nostoc) was reduce than the nontoxic algae genera (Porphyridium, Oscillatoria, Gracilaria, Synechocystis, Arthrospira, and Synechococcus) (Figure 8). This indicated that much more research had been focused on the advantages of cyanobacteria and their bioactivities. Microcystis and Anabaena will be the most important toxic cyanobacteria bloom genera when it comes to diversity, influence possible, and cascading ecological effects [110,111]. While numerous microalgae AZD1208 Autophagy species are available in various culture collections worldwide, only a minority have been completely studied . Strains for instance Haematococcus pluvialis (most important source of astaxanthin), Dunaliella salina (the big supply of beta-carotene), and Spirulina platensis (prime source of phycocyanin), are the examples of microalgae that have finally reached commercial-scale good results [9,87,112]. Numerous a lot of strains have been described inside the literature as sources of phycobiliproteins. However, the lack of strain robustness or low productivity below outside environments has been typically cited as the cause of the failure of those strains in achieving commercial-scale production . Because of this, only chosen strains can survive and perform nicely across a wide number of culture conditions, which includes resistance to unfavorable short-term conditions, which might be cultivated outdoors . Additional further investigation is needed to optimize the appropriate algal candidates to grow on a large scale and boost the productivity of beneficial biomolecules. 3.7. Challenges and Approaches within the Phycobiliprotein Field The corpus of phycobiliprotein studies has been steadily enhanced and deepened because of the passion and efforts of researchers in studying phycobiliproteins. It progressively evolved from a fundamental and unitary topic to a multiperspective and sustainable development study field involving biology, chemistry, technologies, and the atmosphere. The industry of phycobiliproteins will probably continue to develop due to the increasing organic item demand, the discovery of novel phycobiliproteins, advancements in the upstream and downstream processes, and expanding from the market potential [5,62]. The present study postulates that phycobiliprotein research would continue to become active and expand in bioactivity properties and applications. To meet the demand of the market, many strategies should be adopted (Figure 12). Initial, worldwide collaboration should be prioritized to be able to conduct higher good quality research. Second, the majority of the phycobiliproteins analysis is performed on a laboratory scale presently. Until no.