Osity, Modernist Pantry, Eliot, ME, USA) was incorporated as the binder. Other components, such as molasses, yeast seasoning, umami seasoning, coconut oil, canola oil, beet juice, garlic powder, black pepper, and STPP, had been utilized as described in Table 1. Round beef steaks had been obtained from regional supermarkets in Jinju, Korea. two.two. Sample Preparation and Processing The flow diagram with the beef patties with various levels of TVP substituted is shown in Figure 1. TVP was incorporated as an important ingredient in beef patties. The hydration Nifekalant Potassium ChannelMembrane Transporter/Ion Channel|Nifekalant Technical Information|Nifekalant In Vitro|Nifekalant custom synthesis|Nifekalant Cancer} procedure of TVP was adopted from Bakhsh et al. . Consequently, according to every formulation, the specific volume of TVP was hydrated by soaking in cold water (at a ratio of 1:2) and stored inside a chilling room for 1 h at four C. The mixing and grinding process were adopted from Samard et al.  with slight modifications. Beef samples were minced by passing them through a meat grinder (Magimix Compact 3100, Montceau-Les-Mines,Foods 2021, ten,3 ofFrance) equipped using a 3 mm plate grinder. TVP was substituted in beef patties based on the individual formulation at a variety of levels (10, 20, 30, and 40) and mixed for 10 min using the rest on the ingredients listed in Table 1 utilizing a Kitchen Aid mixer (Classic Plus Stand Mixer, St Joseph, MI, USA) till a homogenous distribution was observed.Table 1. Treatment and formulation of beef patties replaced with unique levels of TVP. Therapies Ingredients 0 Ground beef TVP Methylcellulose Garlic Amidepsine D In Vitro powder Yeast extract Black pepper Mushroom Salt Coconut oil Canola oil Beet juice Molasses Foods 2021, ten, 2811 Smoked flavor STPP 75.88 – 3.00 two.25 2.25 1.50 two.25 1.12 3.75 3.75 1.50 1.50 0.75 0.50 10 65.88 10.00 3.00 two.25 2.25 1.50 two.25 1.12 three.75 three.75 1.50 1.50 0.75 0.50 TVP 20 55.88 20.00 3.00 2.25 2.25 1.50 two.25 1.12 three.75 three.75 1.50 1.50 0.75 0.50 30 45.88 30.00 3.00 2.25 two.25 1.50 two.25 1.12 3.75 three.75 1.50 1.50 0.75 0.50 40 35.88 40.00 3.00 two.25 two.25 1.50 2.25 1.12 three.75 three.75 1.50 1.50 four of 15 0.75 0.TVP: textured vegetable protein. STPP: Sodium tripolyphosphate.Figure 1. Flow diagram for the manufacture of beef patties with diverse levels of TVP substituted. Figure 1. Flow diagram for the manufacture of beef patties with various levels of TVP substituted.Foods 2021, 10,4 ofFor every single specification, 90 g of the mixture was then shaped into patties using a patty press maker (Figure 2). Lastly, a beef patty which includes plant-based ingredients and without the need of TVP was utilized for the control, as described in Table 1. 5 formulations of beef patties varying in their TVP levels, with two batches of every (raw and cooked, n = 2), have been employed within the existing experiment. A total of thirty patties have been prepared and fifteen patties had been Figure 1. to every raw for the manufacture of beef patties allocatedFlow diagram and cooked batch separately. with different levels of TVP substituted.Figure two. Typical beef patties with different levels of TVP substituted. Figure two. Typical beef patties with diverse levels of TVP substituted.2.3. Proximate Evaluation the cooking procedure of patties was carried out on a non-stick By means of dry heat, pan (DWR-SH2000, Daewoo established procedure of AOAC , moisture, protein, and Determined by the common Maixingman House appliances Co., Ltd., Gwangju, Korea) at 150 C for five wereon each side. Moisture content material was measured inside the oven nonstick pan ash content min determined. Subsequently, the patties had been flipped on a (BioFree, BF till the internal t.