Xygen species and apoptotic bodies, and mitochondrial depolarization had been substantially reduced in HT22 cells with H2 O2 -induced oxidative toxicity. In addition, CIE improved the phosphorylation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), protein kinase B (Akt), cAMP response element-binding protein, the expression of brainderived neurotrophic issue, antioxidant enzymes, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear element erythroid 2-related issue two by activating the TrkB/Akt signaling pathway. In contrast, the addition of K252a, a TrkB inhibitor, or MK-2206, an Akt-selective inhibitor, reduced the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of CIE. Taken Hydrocinnamic acid Endogenous Metabolite collectively; CIE exhibits neuroprotective and antioxidant effects against oxidative damage. Consequently, it may be a possible agent for treating oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative ailments. Keywords and phrases: Chrysanthemum indicum; neuroprotective effects; antioxidant; nuclear element erythroid 2-related factor two; tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B; protein kinase B1. Introduction Oxidative pressure can be a important bring about of numerous neurodegenerative ailments including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and cerebral ischemia . In particular, central nervous system and neuronal cells, with higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content material along with a high oxygen consumption rate, are susceptible to oxidative pressure [4,5]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical neuronal signaling molecules in normal Anle138b Purity & Documentation physiological processes, including intracellular signal transduction and gene expression. On the other hand, the overproduction and accumulation of ROS, like hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) and superoxide anion, can cause in depth oxidative tension responses, which, in turn, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, cell damage, and death [6,7]. Therefore, reducing the risk of oxidative anxiety triggered by the overproduction of ROS is definitely an crucial target for treating or stopping neurodegenerative illnesses. Brain-derived neurotrophic issue (BDNF) plays an important role in quite a few brain functions such as neuronal survival, proliferation, protection, and synaptic plasticity . Earlier research have shown that the expression of BDNF protects neuronal cells against oxidative tension and decreases the threat of neurodegenerative issues in the brain [11,12]. BDNF elicits its physiological function by binding together with the specificPublisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.Copyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This short article is an open access article distributed beneath the terms and conditions on the Inventive Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (licenses/by/ 4.0/).Nutrients 2021, 13, 3690. 10.3390/numdpi/journal/nutrientsNutrients 2021, 13,two ofcell surface tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) receptor. Subsequently, the activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling leads to the phosphorylation and activation in the protein kinase B (Akt) and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) [13,14]. Nuclear aspect erythroid 2-related issue 2 (Nrf-2) is correlated with a further mechanism of neuroprotection. It is a central transcription issue that may activate antioxidant enzymes inside the central nervous method. The enzymes include heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutamate ysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione (GSH) . A number of studies have shown that the Nrf-2-med.