Nces, Universitdegli two. Components and Procedures Studi di Milano, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy. We originally searched the PubMed archiveThis01 March 2021 with theat the Division of Health Sciences,surface disease” OR on critique was performed keywords “vitamin” AND “ocular Universitdegli “dry eye Milano, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy.4230 originally searched the PubMed Studi di disease”. We LTC4 Storage & Stability inspected the results of We papers and identified 254 papers, archive on 01 March 2021 using the search phrases “vitamin” AND “ocular efficacy; (2) clinical providing the following useful details: (1) preclinical proof of surface disease” OR “dry of efficacy. Two evaluators independently inspected the complete text 254 references evidence eye disease”. We inspected the results of 4230 papers and identified andpapers, giving the following useful details: reports with duplicated final results, case series with to retrieve relevant papers. Excluded had been (1) preclinical proof of efficacy; (two) clinical proof of efficacy. Two with no abstract or papers not written complete text and references ten sufferers or significantly less, papersevaluators independently inspected the in English. No restrictions for the presence of papers. Excluded were reports with duplicated benefits, case series on retrieve relevant a handle group or length of follow-up were applied. Inside the finish, 55 with ten patients or significantly less, papers with no abstract or papers not written in English. No studies had been analyzed in this critique. 3. Resultsrestrictions on the presence of a handle group or length of follow-up were applied. In the finish, 55 research have been analyzed within this evaluation.3. Final results 3.1. Vitamin A three.1. Vitamin A 3.1.1. Preclinical EvidenceThere is massive preclinical proof supporting the advantageous effects of vitamin A adThere is significant systemically or topically) around the ocular surface. The mechanisms ministration (eitherpreclinical proof supporting the advantageous effects of vitamin A of administration (either systemically or topically) on the ocular surface. The mechanisms of action of vitamin A around the OS are reported in Figure 1. Vitamin A increases conjunctival action of vitamin A on the OS are reported in Figure 1. Vitamin A increases conjunctival mucin expression and promotes right corneal and conjunctival wound healing, reducmucin expression and promotes right corneal and conjunctival wound healing, decreasing ing keratinization. These effects have already been shown by several studies distinct animalaniusing distinct keratinization. These effects have already been shown by several research utilizing mal models of DED: vitamin A promotes wound healing  by enhancing epithelialepimodels of DED: vitamin A promotes wound healing  by directly directly enhancing thelial [5,6], and reducingreducing cell apoptosis  and corneal keratinization .are repair repair [5,6], and cell apoptosis  and corneal keratinization . These effects These effects are by a rise inincrease in tear volumequalityand On a Estrogen receptor review rabbit On a rabbit model mediated mediated by an tear volume [9,10] and [9,10] . excellent . model of OSD, of OSD, because of antiglaucoma treatments, topical was as efficient as topical cyclosporine cydue to antiglaucoma treatments, topical vitamin A vitamin A was as efficient as topical closporine in reducing OS inflammation, as evaluated by impression cytology . in minimizing OS inflammation, as evaluated by impression cytology .3.1.1. Preclinical EvidenceFigure 1. Effects of vitamin A suppleme.