Luding recognized mosquito oviposition attractants, plant and vertebrate host kairomones, and organic repellents: 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexen-3-ol, 1heptene-3-ol, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol (Kline et al., 1990), 3-octyn-1-ol, 1-octyn-3-ol, 1nonanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-phenoxyethanol, two,3-butanediol, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, butyl acetate, pentyl acetate, hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, decyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl lactate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, methyl butyrate, ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate, methyl salicylate, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2undecanone, cyclohexanone, acetophenone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (Birkett et al., 2004; Logan et al., 2009; Logan et al., 2010), 2-butoxylacetone, 2-tridecanone, two,3-butanedione, ethyl stearate, methyl myristate, -valerolactone, -hexalactone, -octalactone, decalactone, (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MOP) (Laurence and Pickett, 1982), 2undecanone, propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal (Leal et al., 2008; Syed and Leal, 2009), decanal, undecanal, phenylacetaldehyde, furfural, trans-2-methyl-2-butenal, benzaldehyde, phenol, 2-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, three,5-dimethylphenol, 2,3-dimethylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, guaiacol, indole, 3methylindole (=skatole) (Blackwell et al., 1993; Leal et al., 2008; Millar et al., 1992; Olagbemiro et al., 2004), butylamine, heptylamine, octylamine, trimethylamine (Leal et al.,J Insect Physiol. Author manuscript; obtainable in PMC 2014 September 01.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptXu et al.Page2008), nonanoic acid, (-lactic acid, geraniol, nerol, geranylacetone (Logan et al., 2009; Logan et al., 2010), trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol, cis-p-menthane-3,8-diol (Paluch et al., 2010), geranyl acetate, (-linalool (Choi et al., 2002), (-)-fenchone, (+)-fenchone, (thujone, linalool oxide, (-eucalyptol, eugenol (Kafle and Shih, 2013), and (-citronellal (Paluch et al., 2010).NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript3. Benefits and discussion3.1 Reconciling Culex OR nomenclature Prior to publication from the Cx. quinquefasciatus genome (Arensburger et al., 2010), we identified and de-orphanized two ORs in the Southern house mosquito. We named them CquiOR2 (Pelletier et al., 2010) and CquiOR10 (Hughes et al., 2010) primarily based on their high amino acid identity with AgamOR2/AaegOR2 and AgamOR10/AaegOR10 in the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, respectively. RT-PCR evaluation showed that CquiOR2 and CquiOR10 genes are expressed exclusively in olfactory tissues. Even though neither was detected in non-olfactory tissues from adult females, CquiOR2 was expressed only in antennae, whereas CquiOR10 was expressed primarily in Virus Protease Inhibitor medchemexpress antennae and secondarily in maxillary palps (Pelletier et al., 2010). We then demonstrated using the Xenopus oocyte recording technique that CquiOR2 responded to several compounds with indole being the most beneficial Parasite Biological Activity ligand (Pelletier et al., 2010), whereas CquiOR10 was narrowly tuned to the oviposition attractant skatole (Hughes et al., 2010). CquiOR2 and CquiOR10 shared high amino acid identity with two annotated ORs in the genome of Cx. quinquefasciatus: CquiOR121 (VectorBase, CPIJ802644; formerly CPIJ014392) and CquiOR21 (VectorBase, CPIJ801844; formerly CPIJ002479; previously named CqOR2 in VectorBase), respectively. CquiOR2 and CquiOR121 differ in 4 residues, Glu- vs.