Saline-treated MMP-1 Formulation hypercholesterolemic rats while the levels were nonetheless considerably ( 0.05) larger than that inside the manage rats. The imply blood glucose level was significantly ( 0.05) higher in Piper betle extract-treated hypercholesterolemic rats than that in lovastatin-treated or eugenoltreated hypercholesterolemic rats. However, no considerable distinction was observed among the imply blood glucose level in lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats and that in eugenol-treated hypercholesterolemic rats (Table 1).three. Results3.1. Blood Glucose Levels in Wistar Rats (Table 1). The mean blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic, saline-treated3.2. Serum Lipid Profile Parameters in Wistar Rats (Table 1). Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats showed substantially ( 0.05) larger mean serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and VLDL-cholesterol, a considerably larger atherogenic index plus a substantially ( 0.05) reduce imply degree of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the values in control rats and in lovastatintreated, Piper betle extract-treated, or eugenol-treated hypercholesterolemic rats (Table 1). On the other hand, hypercholesterolemic rats treated with lovastatin or Piper betle extract exhibited considerably ( 0.05) larger imply serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and VLDLcholesterol, a greater atherogenic index at the same time as drastically ( 0.05) reduced imply serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, when in comparison to manage rats. No important differencesEvidence-Based Complementary and Alternative MedicineTable 2: Imply serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes in Wistar rats. Parameters tested AST ALT ALP LDHGroup I (control) 0.eight 0.2 1.two 0.03 two.0 0.1 six.9 0.Group II hypercholesterolemic, saline treated 1.eight 0.2a 1.8 0.3a three.three 0.7a 17.2 0.5aGroup III hypercholesterolemic, lovastatin treated 1.six 0.2ab 1.6 0.2ab 3.0 0.1a 13.4 0.7abGroup IV hypercholesterolemic, Piper betle extract treated 1.3 0.3ab 1.two 0.1ab three.2 0.1ab 12.2 0.4abcGroup V hypercholesterolemic, eugenol treated 1.2 0.2bcd 1.three 0.3ab 2.eight 0.3ab 12.5 0.5abcSampling performed 10 days right after induction of hypercholesterolemia and 7 days soon after commence of remedy. Values represent the imply SD for observations created on 5 rats in every single group. Units: aspartate and alanine aminotransferases: moles 10-2 of pyruvate liberated/min/mg protein. Alkaline phosphatase: moles 10-2 of phenol liberated/min/mg protein. Lactate dehydrogenase: moles 10-1 of pyruvate formed/minute/mg protein. Statistical evaluation: one-way evaluation of variance (ANOVA), exactly where substantial, post hoc FAAH custom synthesis testing (least important difference) performed for intergroup comparisons. AST: aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, ALP: alkaline phosphatase, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase. a Statistically important distinction ( 0.05) when compared with group I values. b Statistically important difference ( 0.05) when compared with group II values. c Statistically important difference ( 0.05) when compared with group III values. d Statistically significant difference ( 0.05) when compared with group IV values.have been observed in these parameters between hypercholesterolemic rats that had been treated with Piper betle extract or with lovastatin (Table 1). Interestingly, eugenol-treated rats exhibited a significantly ( 0.05) decrease mean level of total cholesterol than that in lovastatin-treated rats. Also, the imply serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDLcholesterol lev.